In order to provide the most up-to-date picture of the language, many obso- lescent or obsolete terms have been eliminated, such as aught, ere, forenoon, fortnight, kerchief, knave, morrow, and o'er. Another significant improvement in the fifth edition is the consistent use of parenthetical words meant to guide the choice of equivalents from a series. For ex- ample, among the various equivalents of soft, the user is advised to choose blando to apply to butter, suave to apply to skin, and tenue to apply to light.
Similarly, users are. A change that will enhance the usability of the dictionary is the integration into the entries themselves of material that was formerly presented in charts and lists, such as idioms, proverbs, names of nations, and cardinal and ordinal numbers. The amount and quality of grammatical information has been expanded. For the first time, gender markings for Spanish noun equivalents are provided on the English-Spanish side, thus freeing users from having to seek this information on the Spanish-English side.
Additionally, transitive and intransitive verbal meanings are distinguished. The frequent references to regional usage characteristic of the fourth edition have been de-emphasized here, partly for reasons of space, partly because of the notorious unreliability of the available information on regional dialects.
In the present edition, such information is provided only where a word of more general currency might not be understood see the various equivalents of Eng.
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Gragg, Eric P. Hamp, Salikoko Mufwene, and Michael Silverstein. De especial importancia son las incorporaciones en los campos de la medicina anorexia antioxidante, clon, desfibrilar, ,. Por ejemplo, entre los difer- entes equivalentes de destino, se advierte al usuario que opte por fate cuando significa 'hado', por destination cuando significa 'lugar adonde se viaja' y por use cuando significa 'uso'.
Alphabetical order is observed irrespective of hyphens or spaces, such that air condi- tioner precedes aircraft and middle school precedes middle-sized. Regarding Spanish, according to the current policy of the Spanish Royal Academy , ch and II are no longer recognized as separate letters, such that ch 1. Compounds listed within entries are also alphabetized. However, the need to list compounds under their first element sometimes interferes with alphabetization, as when slumlord, a compound listed under slum, comes before the next headword, slum- ber, even though strict alphabetization would require the reverse.
Spelling of English words reflects common American usage, variants being noted where applicable ax, axe; sulphur, sulfur, stymie, stymy. The spelling of Spanish words, where possible, follows the conventions of the Spanish Royal Academy. Bahrain, which. In these cases, we either opt for the form that appears to be most generally accepted or provide multiple equivalents. Libro de estilo, 9th ed. How to Use the Dictionary. Some categories of words are systematically omitted from the vocabulary entries. First, irregular English past tense and participial forms e. Second, adverbial forms in -ly English and -mente Spanish are included only when their usage and meaning are not transparently derivable from their adjec- tival bases.
Thus, clearly is omitted, as its usage is predictable from its adjectival base in a clear way' , while surely is included, since it means, in addition to 'in a sure. Similarly, claramente 'clearly' is omitted, while atentamente is retained, since the latter, in addition to meaning 'in an attentive manner', is also used as a farewell, equivalent to 'yours truly'. Third, English nouns in -ing and adjectives in -ed, which may appear as glosses of Spanish words, are not always accorded separate entries on the English-Spanish side, due to their derivational regularity and to considerations of space.
Spelling variants, if any, follow the most frequent form, which appears first. In Spanish, occupational designations, titles, and kinship terms are. Pronunciation of English words is indicated through a mod- ified version of the International Phonetic Alphabet, whose conventions are ex- plained on p. No individual transcription of Spanish words is required, given the simplicity and consistency of the Spanish orthographic system. The exception to this rule is that nouns on the Spanish-English.
Order of meanings within an entry reflects frequency of usage. Where more than one grammatical category can be rendered by the same gloss, the two are listed together, cf. How- Traditionally, Spanish adjectives are listed in their masculine ever, where the adjective normally functions as a noun as well, it is shown with both masculine and feminine forms if both are possible, cf. Not infrequently, however, Spanish glosses of English intransitives require the addition of the pronominal particle -se.
Where an English verb can be used both transitively and intransitively and its Spanish equivalent is only intransitive, the latter may some-. Thus, English fight is glossed as pelear con to show that its in-. Again for reasons of economy, pronominal forms of Spanish verbs are omit- ted in two cases: First, when the particle - se functions as a direct object, either reflexive or reciprocal, cf.
Whenever a word, within a grammatical category, is considered to have two or more meanings, these are differentiated by means of delimiters, that is, explanatory markers. Most commonly, synonyms are used, cf. Thus, transitive verbs are sometimes best differentiated according to the objects they take, cf. Similarly, adjectives may be most easily distinguished by showing the ref- erents to which they regularly apply, cf.
los humeros puebla: Topics by ewawaqeliwyd.tk
Not infrequently, a single equivalent covers almost all meanings of a headword in a single gram- matical category. In such cases, only the "exceptional" meaning, placed second, is delimited. For example, the equivalent of Eng. Although delimiters typically precede the gloss they are meant to distinguish, occasionally they are placed afterward. In these cases they are meant to erase doubts about the applicability of a given gloss in a specific secondary context, cf. Insofar as is possible, glosses are intended to match the headword in terms of meaning, register, and frequency. Similarly, orirnr is glossed as to urinate rather than the informal and vulgar to piss.
Semicolons, on the other hand, if. No systematic attempt has been made to reflect regional usage in either English or Spanish, since in the great majority of cases a word of more general currency is among the many Spanish available as a gloss. Thus, equivalents of Eng. However, Spanish regional usage is marked where any of the following conditions are met: 1 there is no term of international currency, or it might not be understood in a given location cf.
Because, as mentioned earlier, equivalents are chosen in order to match headwords in all aspects of their meaning, including register and frequency, stylistic markers are only infrequently employed. They are included, redundantly, in the case of taboo or offensive words, in order to provide a second level of warning to potential users. Thus, whereas there is no need to mark the Spanish gloss tonto as familiar, since it is meant to be equivalent to the equally familiar Eng.
Taboo and offensive words are included in this dictionary because of its purely descriptive rather than prescriptive nature; that is, this dictionary is in- tended to reflect how the vocabularies of English and Spanish are actually used by their speakers, rather than how we or other people may feel that they should be used.
The inclusion of vulgar and offensive words here should not be construed as an indication that we condone or encourage their use. Ease of usage would dictate that each lexical item receive its own economy this is not possible in a concise dictionary. This entry, but for reasons of explains why compound words, which are composed of two or more preexisting words, are listed in almost all cases under the entry of their initial constituent, at the end of the corresponding grammatical category.
Thus, doghouse is listed as —house, under There are certain exceptions to this convention, however. First, compounds are listed under the headword of their second constituent when. Thus, to have a good time, glossed divertirse, is. Second, English compounds whose first element is a preposition offsides outcast, overcome are listed as separate headwords, chiefly ,. Conversely, derived words, that is, words that contain one or more affixes e. Appearing together with the compound words per- tinent to any given grammatical category are illustrative phrases, a category de- fined so as to include idioms, collocations, proverbs, and, especially, sentences required to clarify usage in some way, as when the usage of gustarle a uno as a gloss of to like is illustrated by the phrase he likes dogs, with the translation le.
Para la. Los significados dentro de una entrada aparecen ordenados de manera que el frecuente figure primero. Por ejemplo, el equivalente de acceso en casi todas sus acepciones es access, excepto cuando se refiere a un ataque de tos o rabia, en cuyo caso se traduce como fit. El uso del punto y coma indica acepciones distintas.
De tal forma, hombre rana aparece como — rana, en la entrada de hombre. Hay ciertas excepciones a esta regla, sin embargo. No obstante, las palabras derivadas, i. Spanish orthography very closely mirrors Spanish pronunciation, much more so than is the case in English. This explains why, in bilingual dictionaries such as this, each English entry must be accompanied by a phonetic representation, while Spanish pro- nunciation may be presented in synoptic form.
This synopsis is only meant as an introduction, however. In spite of the clarity. For these reasons, readers who wish to perfect their pronunciation of Spanish are strongly advised to seek the help of a competent teacher. To say that orthography mirrors pronunciation means that there is a close cor- relation between letters and sounds. Thus, most Spanish letters correspond to a single sound, or to a single family of closely related sounds, as is the case for all vowels, and the consonants f, l, m, n, p, t, and s.
In a few cases a single letter represents two very different sounds, as c, which is pronounced as k before a, o, and u, but th as in thin, or as s in America before e or i. The overarching differences between Spanish and English pronunciation are tense- ness of articulation and syllabification within the breath group.
Due to the tenseness of their articulation, for example, all Spanish vowels have a clear nondiphthongal character, unlike English long vowels, which tend to be bipartite e. Syllabification is a problem for English speakers because in Spanish, syllables are formed without respect to word boundaries, such that el hado 'fate' and helado 'ice cream' are both pronounced as e-la-do, and the phrase tus otras hermanas 'your other sisters' is syllabified as tu-so-tra-ser-ma-nas.
In fast speech, vowels may combine, as in lo ofendiste 'you offended him', pronounced lo-fen-dis-te. Finally, when Spanish con- sonants occur in clusters, very often the articulation of the second influences that of the first, as when un peso 'one peso'is pronounced um-pe-so, and en que 'in which'. As a part of a diphthong, it sounds like the y of English yes, year. Examples: bien, baile, reina. Notably, a is similar to the always pronounced this way, even when not stressed. This contrasts with the English tendency to reduce unstressed vowels to schwa [a] , as in America, pro- nounced in English as [a-me-ri-ka].
Examples: cura, agudo, uno. When u occurs in diphthongs such as those of cuida, cuento, deuda, it has the sound of w as in way. At the beginning of a breath group or when preceded by the m sound which may be spelled n , they are both pro- nounced like English b. Examples: bomba, en vez de, vine, invierno. In other environments, especially between vowels, both letters are pronounced as a very.
The pressure profile of this field is that of a boiling water column, at a temperature of about Celsius degrees. The second field is below meters over the sea level and from the known data it reaches at least meters over the sea level. It is considered a low-liquid saturated field.
The temperatures of the wells supplied by this field were estimated to be about Celsius degrees. Sobre la base de los datos analizados se desarrollaron modelos de distribucion de la presion del yacimiento en su estado inicial. Dichos modelos revelan la existencia de, cuando menos, dos yacimientos.
El primero y mas superficial se encuentra localizado entre 1, y 1, metros sobre el nivel del mar msnm , y dada su excelente concordancia con el perfil de presion correspondiente a una columna de agua en ebullicion, puede afirmarse que se trata de un yacimiento de liquido dominante. El perfil de presion de este yacimiento corresponde a una columna de agua en ebullicion de a Gas data of Los Humeros geothermal field were analyzed. A new method, which is based on the Fischer-Tropch reactions and on the combined pyrite-magnetite mineral equilibrium, was used.
Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam were estimated for the starting stage of the field by using early data taken from producing wells at controlled conditions. The same parameters were also obtained for the present stage by using gas data.
Reservoir temperatures ranged from and Celsius degrees and positive values for reservoir excess steam fractions were obtained for the starting stage. For well H-1 no excess steam was found since this well was fed by the shallower liquid-dominated reservoir. Results for showed lower scattering compared to early data and the possible occurrence of a heating process in the shallower stratum which could due to exploitation. Este metodo provee la temperatura del yacimiento y el exceso de vapor presente en la descarga total de los pozos.
Los resultados se discuten tanto para el estado inicial del yacimiento utilizando los primeros datos de produccion en los que el flujo del pozo estuvo controlado y los obtenidos en que representan el estado actual del yacimiento. En el estado inicial se estimaron temperaturas de yacimiento de entre y grados Celsius y excesos de vapor positivos, con excepcion del pozo H-1 que se alimenta del estrato somero dominado por liquido. Los resultados obtenidos para muestran una dispersion menor y la probable ocurrencia de un proceso de calentamiento del estrato somero propiciado por la explotacion.
Estimation of the electric potential at Los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico; Estimacion del potencial electrico del yacimiento de los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico. The evaluation of the electric potential of geothermal reservoir allows us to estimate the stored energy and the maximum power that could be installed at determined time.
The method that was employed for the evaluation is that gradual pressure depletion of the reservoir. It consists of decompressing the system until an abandonment pressure or predetermined time of exploitation is reached. Results indicate that it is possible to generate more than MW during 20 years. El metodo que se empleo para la evaluacion es el de descompresion gradual del yacimiento, que consiste en despresurizar el sistema hasta llegar a una presion de abandono de explotacion predeterminado, y calcular cual es la maxima potencia electrica del yacimiento bajo tales condiciones.
El resultado indica que en Los Humeros es posible generar mas de MW durante 20 anos. E-mail: aggarcia iie. The initial temperatures field is presented for 40 wells in the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, along with an elevation curve based on the formation temperature or the most probable reservoir temperature.
Stabilized temperatures were estimated using the Radial Spherical Heat Flow method, chosen over the Horner method based on the numerical simulation of the circulation and stop processes of well H In this well, the last temperature log series was reproduced, considering circulation losses. The temperatures were used to produce isothermal curves over three geological sections of the field, which represent the initial distribution of temperatures in the reservoir and show the thermal characteristics and the relationships among thermal anomalies and faults in the reservoir.
The elevation curve plotted against the initial temperature of the formation was generated based on detection of the main feed zones at each well, which in turn was developed using detailed analyses of diverse information, such as temperature logs, circulation losses, lithology, well completion, and heat velocities. Based on the results, two groups of wells may be distinguished: one between and masl with temperatures from to degrees Celsius, and one between and 0 masl with temperatures from to degrees Celsius.
Las temperaturas estabilizadas se estimaron mediante el metodo de Flujo de Calor Esferico Radial, y su eleccion sobre las temperaturas del metodo de Horner se soporta con simulacion numerica de los procesos de circulacion y paro del pozo H, en la cual la ultima serie de registros se reprodujo considerando perdidas de circulacion. Con estas temperaturas se generaron curvas isotermicas para tres secciones. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla , Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico y zonas aledanas.
A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In , a total of 99 samples were collected and were collected in Of these, The Atempan No.
Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood.
Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. Exploratory drilling has confirmed the existence of a geothermal system in the Los Humeros volcanic center, located km east of Mexico City. Volcanic activity in the area began with the eruption of andesites, followed by two major caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions. The younger Los Potreros caldera is nested inside the older Los Humeros caldera. At later stages, basaltic andesite, dacite, and olivine basalt lavas erupted along the ring-fracture zones of both calderas.
Geologic interpretation of structural, geophysical, and drilling data suggests that: 1 the water-dominated geothermal reservoir is hosted by the earliest andesitic volcanic pile, is bounded by the ring-fracture zone of the Los Potreros caldera, and is capped by the products of the oldest caldera-forming eruption; 2 permeability within the andesitic pile is provided by faults and fractures related to intracaldera uplift; 3 the geothermal system has potential for a large influx of meteoric water through portions of the ring-fracture zones of both calderas; and 4 volcanic centers with similar magmatic and structural conditions can be found in the eastern Cascades, USA.
However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated.
Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production e.
The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering. Initial temperature distribution in Los Humeros , Mexico, geothermal field; Distribucion de temperatura inicial en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros , Puebla. The initial formation temperatures surrounding 40 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field are presented.
These temperatures were estimated using the Horner and the sphere methods.
A brief discussion on the applicability of each method is presented and previous applications are detailed. Then the more likely reservoir temperature of each well versus elevation is plotted based on the estimations about the main feed zone and the temperature of each well. The boiling with depth curve for pure water is also included.
Two longitudinal and one traverse geological sections are presented to illustrate the field initial temperature distribution, the lithology and layers thickness, the basement topography and the wells traversed along each sections. Also, the main feed zones of the wells are indicated.
Finally, the last series of measured temperature logs in well H are produced by numerical simulation. This considers the well circulation losses and an assumed initial temperature profile. This profile iteratively modified until the computed profiles match the measured temperature profiles. The last assumed temperature profile is then considered as the best approximation to the undisturbed formation temperature around well H and it is then compared with the stabilized temperatures obtained via the Horner and Sphere methods.
Se presenta una discusion sobre la aplicacion de cada metodo y se detallan las aplicaciones previas del metodo de la esfera. Posteriormente y con base en las estimaciones de las principales zonas de aporte de cada pozo y sus correspondientes temperaturas se grafican las temperaturas mas probables de yacimiento para cada pozo contra la elevacion y se incluye en la misma grafica la curva de ebullicion del agua contra la elevacion. Geochemical and isotopic behavior of fluids from wells in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla , Mexico; Comportamiento geoquimico e isotopico del fluido de los pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico.
In general the wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields produce sodium bicarbonate water with a low salinity because the fluids are produced from the shallow part of the reservoir. The fluids in wells H and H-6 are sodium chloride: the first influenced by fluids from deep levels in the reservoir and the second by fluids coming only from the deeps part of the reservoir. Fluid mixture for other wells depends on operating conditions. To date, it has been difficult with the geothermetric temperatures to establish the underground flow directions and whether or not an infiltration of shallow low-temperature fluids occurs.
Well H has the lowest-temperature fluid in the liquid phase, which suggests infiltration of shallow local fluids-a result corroborated by an isotopic study. Using the methodology of Giggenbach and Goguel, we found that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at temperatures between and Celsius degrees. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the wells show that they produce fluids from the liquid region. This fact, together with the low salinity, permit the application of the D' Amore methodology, with which the estimations of vapor fractions in the reservoir are relatively low.
Esto se debe a que extraen fluidos de la parte somera del yacimiento.
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Los pozos H y H-6 son clorurados sodicos; el primero por cierta influencia de la zona. Seismologic study of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla , Mexico. Parte II: Tomografia sismica por atenuacion a partir de ondas de coda Qc-1 de sismos locales. E-mail: jles pumas. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla ; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H, campo geotermico de Los Humeros , Puebla.
E-mail: magaly. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer NaOH , and drilling the well are about Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio.
La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5. Seismologic study of Los Hum eros geothermal field, Pueblo, Mexico. Part I: Seismicity, source mechanisms and stress distribution; Estudio sismologico del campo geotermico de Los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico.
Parte I: Sismicidad, mecanismos de fuente y distribucion de esfuerzos. F Mexico ]. E-Mail: jles pumas. The distribution of earthquakes at the surface and at depth in the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla Mexico , is analyzed from Data for 95 earthquakes were registered at more than five permanent and temporary stations installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad and the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
The duration magnitudes of the quakes are equal to or lower than 3. Simple focal mechanisms and moment tensor inversions were made, and the number of earthquakes registered by two stations of the permanent network numbers S05, S06 was compared with water-injection and steam-production volumes over a certain period.
The results at the surface and at depth show seismic activity occurring in the northern zone of the field around injection wells I29 well H and I38 well H ; whereas, the simple focal mechanisms and moment tensors demonstrate stresses of heterogeneous origin, suggesting that part of the seismic activity in Los Humeros is probably induced, mainly by injecting water. Los datos corresponden a 95 sismos registrados por mas de cinco estaciones permanentes y temporales instaladas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad y el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, cuyas magnitudes de duracion son menores o iguales a 3.
Asimismo, se realizaron mecanismos focales simples y de inversion de tensor de momento, y se comparo el numero de sismos registrados por dos estaciones de la red permanente numeros S05, S06 con la inyeccion de agua y la produccion de vapor durante cierto tiempo.
Los resultados en superficie y en profundidad muestran actividad sismica en la zona norte del campo, alrededor. Geochemistry and isotopic characterization of rain in the zones of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Los Humeros , Puebla and its relation with geothermal fluids; Caracterizacion geoquimica e isotopica de lluvia en las zonas de Los Azufres, Michoacan y Los Humeros , Puebla y su relacion con fluidos geotermicos.
This work presents the preliminary results of chemical and isotopic monitoring of rainwater in Los Humeros and Los Azufres geothermal fields and their surrounding during The rainwater samples were collected in seven and eight sites in Los Humeros and Los Azufres, respectively.
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The alkalinity values of rainwater were positive in all Los Humeros sites, which indicates that there is no acid rain in the region. There were some samples with negative alkalinity at two sites in case of Los Azufres, Vivero and Guadalajara, but the values were very small. This means that there is some acidity in the rain. In case of Los Humeros a good correlation was observed between alkalinity and the concentration of calcium, which indicates that the samples were probably affected by dust.
This evidence suggests that the clouds formed in the Gulf of Mexico bring rain to the Central part of Mexico. Rainwater at Los Azufres contains contaminants from industrial sites located to the east. It can be concluded that there is no discernible influence of geothermal emissions on rainwater acidity. This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H and H These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate PTS electronic logs, used for the first time in this field.
The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of Well H fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo PTS , utilizada por primera vez en este campo.
En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de A new method of damage determination in geothermal wells from geothermal inflow with application to Los Humeros , Mexico. Geothermal inflow type curves were obtained for different values of well damage i. The method was evaluated by diagnosing the damage of thirteen producing wells in the Los Humeros , Puebla , Mexico geothermal field.
Permeability determinations were carried out for these wells and their productivity indices were estimated. Comparison of the diagnoses made via damage effects against the results of field pressure tests showed that the maximum difference between both approaches is on the order of 0. The methodology allows reservoir characterization along its productive life, since several production tests are carried out while the reservoir is producing. The data obtained from production tests are used to determine the damage effect and permeability of the rock formation. Previously the damage skin factor could only be determined from the analyses of transient pressure tests.
Tambien se hicieron determinaciones de la permeabilidad en las zonas de produccion de estos pozos y de sus respectivos indices de productividad. Se compararon los resultados del valor de dano obtenido con la metodologia propuesta, con los valores de dano obtenidos a partir de pruebas de presion, encontrando que las diferencias maximas entre ambas tecnicas es del orden de 0.
La presente metodologia permite la caracterizacion del yacimiento a lo largo de su vida productiva a partir de las mediciones de las pruebas de produccion efectuadas en los pozos.
La metodologia propuesta es innovadora porque anteriormente el dano solamente se podia determinar a partir de los analisis de las mediciones de la pruebas de presion. Soil degassing at the Los Humeros geothermal field Mexico. The Los Humeros geothermal field is the third most important producer of geothermal electricity 70 MW in Mexico.
Geothermal fluid upflow from the reservoir towards the surface is limited by welded ignimbrite deposits that act as a low-permeability barrier. The particular location of these three areas suggests that the steam-dominated reservoir degases to the surface through permeable faults crossing the ignimbritic deposits. Finally, we estimate the heat output from the three high degassing areas to a value of E-mail: cesar. Four out of the seven back-pressure power units of 5 MW operating in the Los Humeros geothermal field, State of Puebla , Mexico, are fed by one steam pipe gathering the steam produced by nine wells.
When a failure occurred in any of the units and the excedence valve had to be open to deviate the steam, a decrease in the steam flow for the remaining units was noted, along with lower electrical generation. The cause for that is analyzed and explained in this paper by comparing the interconnected steam supply system to an electric circuit.
A way to maintain a uniform and continuous supply of steam in the Los Humeros field has been found. It was implemented several months ago and the problem has not reoccurred. Cuando ocurria una falla en alguna de estas unidades y se abria por completo la valvula de excedencia para desviar el vapor, se observaba una reduccion en el flujo de vapor que llegaba a las otras tres unidades, lo que a su vez ocasionaba que la generacion de electricidad se redujera notoriamente. En este trabajo se analiza y explica la causa de ello, mediante la comparacion de este sistema interconectado de suministro de vapor con un circuito electrico, y se explica la solucion que se encontro e implemento en el campo de Los Humeros para regular el suministro continuo y uniforme de vapor, con resultados satisfactorios a varios meses de su implementacion en las cuatro unidades interconectadas.
Geochemical evidences of the boiling phenomena in Los Humeros geothermal field; Evidencias geoquimicas del fenomeno de ebullicion en el campo de Los Humeros. The geochemical behavior of the fluids in the geothermal field Los Humeros suggests the existence of a reservoir of relatively low permeability, with hydrostatic pressure gradients and thermodynamic conditions of pressure-temperature close to the boiling point in stationary conditions, that is, non-disturbed.
Nevertheless, the fluid geochemistry also indicates the presence of steam under stationary conditions, mainly in the fault, fracture, fissure, etc. The steam diminishes progressively as the extraction time increases, being replaced by boiling fluid. Sin embargo, la geoquimica de los fluidos tambien indica la existencia de vapor bajo condiciones estables, principalmente en las zonas de fallas, fracturas, fisuras, etc.
El vapor disminuye progresivamente conforme aumenta el tiempo de extraccion, siendo reemplazado por fluido en ebullicion. Application of heating in dex in Los Humeros geothermal reservoir; Comportamiento de los indices de calentamiento en el yacimiento geotermico de los Humeros. Reservoir engineering uses several methodologies to evaluate reservoir information characteristics, which in one well vary with time during its production life. One of the methods widely used is the pressure analysis by stimulating the reservoir through cold water injection.
For this case, the temperature is used as stimulating parameter and the resultant perturbation is analyzed for the formation intervals in order to determine reservoir permeability and thickness. This method requires a set of temperature logs taking a different stability time. The heating index is calculated from the temperature gradient with time. The index correlated with drilling parameters such as the circulation lost volume, lithology, drilling speed, et cetera.
It is used identify interesting reservoir characteristics for production and injections purposes. The results indicate the usefulness of this method in evaluating geothermal reservoirs. Uno de los metodos ampliamente utilizados es el comportamiento de la presion a traves de estimulos suministrados al yacimiento. Haciendo una analogia de la presion, para el caso de inyeccion de agua fria, se utiliza la temperatura como estimulo y se analizan los disturbios que esta provoca en algunas secciones de la formacion, a partir de lo cual es factible determinar intervalos permeables en el yacimiento.
El metodo requiere de un par de perfiles de temperatura registrados a diferente tiempo de reposo del pozo. Con las diferencias de temperatura respecto al tiempo, se calcula el indice de calentamiento el cual se correlaciona con los parametros disponibles, contenidos durante la perforacion, como son. Analysis of production data and fluid thermodynamic conditions in wells of Los Humeros , Pue; Analisis de datos de produccion y condiciones termodinamicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Los Humeros , Pue.
E-mail: vag iie. Production data from 22 wells of the Los Humeros geothermal field in Puebla , Mexico, were analyzed to estimate the thermodynamic conditions pressure and enthalpy of the bottom-hole fluids entering the wells and the changes to the fluids after exploitation. The reservoir temperature was estimated by the FT-HSH2 gas-equilibrium method, which provided values matching very well the measured-well temperatures under static conditions. To estimate the rates of change of the well-bottom thermodynamic variables-pressure and enthalpy-the linear and the harmonic methods were used.
According to these models, overall results indicated pressure-decline rates of between 0. These rates of parameter change were considered moderate, likely due to recharge from the deeper reservoir. Most wells showed temperature increases, although a temperature decrease was noticed in wells HR and H, probably due to mechanical damage in the wells or weak communication with the deeper reservoir.
Las condiciones a fondo de pozo se obtuvieron al simular las historias de produccion de los pozos mediante el simulador numerico WELLSIM. Mineralogical and micro-thermometric features of the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, Pue. E-mail: gim iie. Studies on many topics have been undertaken during the exploratory and exploitation stages of the development of Los Humeros geothermal field.
From a geochemical and mineralogical view-including hydrothermal mineralogy and fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry, features have been reported differing from those observed in other geothermal fields. Sometimes this has led to ambiguous conclusions. Studies of fluid-inclusion micro-thermometry have shown low-salinity and high-temperature fluids, suggesting a slight temperature decrease in the deepest portion associated with a boiling process rather than a cooling process.
In , Arellano et al. Mineralogical data from wells drilled at the Colapso Central zone tend to support this idea. However wells drilled in the zone known as Corredor Mastaloya seemingly show evidence of a single reservoir. Desde el punto de vista geoquimico y mineralogico mineralogia hidrotermal y microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas se han reportado comportamientos diferentes a los observados en otros campos del mundo, los que en ocasiones han llevado a conclusiones imprecisas.
La microtermometria de inclusiones fluidas ha mostrado fluidos poco salinos de alta temperatura, asi como una ligera disminucion de temperatura en la parte profunda la cual se asocia a un proceso de ebullicion mas que a un enfriamiento del sistema. En Arellano et al realizaron un estudio multidisciplinario proponiendo la existencia de al menos dos reservorios. La informacion mineralogica de pozos perforados en la zona del Colapso Central fortalece esta propuesta.
Sin embargo, para pozos localizados en la zona conocida como Corredor Mastaloya se tiene evidencia de lo que parece ser un solo yacimiento. Interpreting compositional zonation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite from Los Humeros caldera, Central Mexico. Compositional zonation in ignimbrites is relatively common, and is often inferred to record gradual withdrawal by an eruption of a density-stratified magma chamber with silicic magma towards the top and more dense, mafic magma at the bottom.
We show that this model does not match observations at the ca. Detailed petrologic studies reveal a more complex scenario: the ignimbrite exhibits a 'double' vertical zonation based on the compositions of pumice lapilli. We present evidence for mingling and limited mixing occurred during or immediately before the caldera-forming eruption. One possibility to explain the observations is that the ignimbrite eruption occurred in response to intrusion of a hybridized andesitic magma into a rhyodacitic magma chamber.
Drilling of bilateral wells: analysis and selection of wells in the Los Humeros , Pue. E-mail: miguel. Drilling bilateral geothermal wells has been conducted successfully in fields in the U. The reason for drilling a second leg in a well is to increase production by penetrating additional production zones. In this report, criteria are presented for selecting wells in Los Humeros , Pue. Wells H-3, H-8 and H were selected as the best subjects for bi-directional drilling. A design is proposed for constructing a second leg in well H El objetivo de perforar una segunda pierna en un mismo pozo es incrementar su produccion, ya que habran mas zonas de produccion.
En este reporte se presentan los criterios para la seleccion de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros , Pue. Posteriormente, aplicando los criterios de evaluacion y con la informacion obtenida de cada pozo, se seleccionaron los pozos H-3, H-8 y H como los que presentan mejores condiciones para la perforacion bidireccional.
Finalmente, se establecio un diseno para la construccion de una segunda pierna en el pozo H E-mail: rmb iie. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition paleo-fluids and andesitic water. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H and H located in the southern area of the field , while the lighter fluids were found in well H originally and then in well H repaired.
Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H and H repaired are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento. Chemical variation in hydrothermal minerals of the Los Humeros geothermal system, Mexico. Martinez-Serrano, R. Insituto de Geofisica. The Los Humeros geothermal system is composed of more than m of Quaternary altered volcanic rocks and an underlying Cretaceous sedimentary sequence.
Petrographic examination of cuttings from five wells and temperature data indicate at least two stages of hydrothermal activity. Temperature is the main factor that affects the chemical composition of chlorite, epidote and biotite. The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact.
The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested km wide caldera.
The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units.
Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation.
Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of. Chemical changes in well fluids from the Los Humeros geothermal field: Evidences for deep recharge; Cambios quimicos en fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros : Evidencia de recarga profunda. Fluid water and steam chemical changes over time were studied in 20 wells in the Los Humeros , Mexico, geothermal field for the purpose of correlating such changes with physical processes occurring in the reservoir due to exploitation.
Most wells except well H-1 produce high-enthalpy fluids with almost no liquid, making gas geochemistry important in this field. Liquid-phase studies include fluid classification, determination of water-rock equilibrium state, and reservoir-temperature estimates. Data for most wells from and indicate the presence of deeper-fluid recharge, with maximum temperatures occurring in and The estimated temperature in well H-1 in was degrees Celsius and the estimated temperature in well H-7 was degrees Celsius in Temperature estimations from data were degrees Celsius in well H-1D and degrees Celsius in well H These results are considered caused by the entrance of deeper fluids due to the increase of secondary permeability, which in turn is related to the seismicity increase in the zone.
At the same time, re-injection returns in the steam phase were identified in well discharges during by means of the FT-HSH2 diagram. La mayoria de los pozos excepto el pozo H-1 se caracterizan por producir descargas de alta entalpia con escasa produccion de liquido, por lo que en este campo la geoquimica de gases juega un papel importante. El estudio de la fase liquida incluyo la clasificacion de los fluidos, la.
Structural analysis and thermal remote sensing of the Los Humeros Volcanic Complex: Implications for volcano structure and geothermal exploration. Norini, G. Understanding the structure of the LHVC and its influence on the occurrence of thermal anomalies and hydrothermal fluids is important to get insights into the interplay between the volcano-tectonic setting and the characteristics of the geothermal resources in the area.
In this study, we present a structural analysis of the LHVC, focused on Quaternary tectonic and volcano-tectonic features, including the areal distribution of monogenetic volcanic centers. Morphostructural analysis and structural field mapping revealed the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the structural features in the study area.
Also, thermal infrared remote sensing analysis has been applied to the LHVC for the first time, to map the main endogenous thermal anomalies.
These data are integrated with newly proposed Unconformity Bounded Stratigraphic Units, to evaluate the implications for the structural behavior of the caldera complex and geothermal field. The study suggests that the geometry of the first collapse recalls a trap-door structure and impinges on a thick volcanic succession The main ring-faults of the two calderas are buried and sealed by the widespread post-calderas volcanic products, and for this reason they probably do not have enough permeability to be the main conveyers of the hydrothermal fluid circulation. An active, previously unrecognized fault system of volcano-tectonic origin has been identified inside the Los Potreros Caldera.
This fault system is the main geothermal target, probably originated by active resurgence of the caldera floor. The active fault system defines three distinct structural sectors in the caldera floor, where the. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros , Pue. Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH.
The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones.
Well H was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way.
Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines.
Longevity and size of magmatic systems are fundamental factors for assessing the potential of a geothermal field.
Hard Times (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition)
The inferred short residence time around 5 ka for the paroxysmal Xaltipan ignimbrite is indicative of rapid assembly of a large magma body and rejuvenation of the system due to recurrent recharge magmas, as it has been occurred in some other large magmatic systems. Thus, the time interval that separates the two caldera-forming episodes at Los Humeros is only 94 kyr, which is a much shorter interval than suggested by previous K-Ar dates kyr.
This temporal proximity allows us to propose a caldera stage encompassing the Xaltipan and the Zaragoza ignimbrites, followed by emplacement at Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. These agroecosystems include native and introduced plant species, as well as cultivated and wild ones.
Plant diversity in coffee plantations is closely related to the social, economic, and ecological context into which coffee production is inserted. In the last decade, coffee cultivation has been in crisis due to low prices. Nevertheless, farmers of the SNP maintain their plantations as a source of income, with new strategies such as the introduction or increase of plants with economic value, like allspice Pimenta dioica, mamey Pouteria sapota, and medicinal plants, taking advantage of the versatility and possibilities.
Los datos utilizados se generaron mediante una entrevista estructurada, aplicada a una muestra aleatoria de empresarios agropecuarios. Peste en una ciudad novohispana. Full Text Available Not available. Los resultados indicaron que los campesinos son minifundistas, y con bajo nivel de escolaridad. El Full Text Available Estudios recientes consideran aspectos objetivos y subjetivos para medir la calidad de vida. Percepciones de los hogares de profesionales en la ciudad de Puebla. Factors determinig these problems, such as loss of vitality and physical and social deterioration, are highlighted in the two case studies.
The implementation of a Sustainable Urban Integration and Rehabilitation Strategy, based on functional, formal, social and environmental characteristics, is proposed. The results are expressed as the preservation of historical heritage, and changes in land use and its environmental conditions. Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the contribution that the backyards of corn farmers make to food security and the preservation and conservation of plant and animal diversity, and its link with farmers' knowledge, in San Nicolas de los Ranchos.
To this end, 77 producers surveyed randomly selected corn was calculated using an equation, the role of food security in the backyard, and the calculation of the diversity index and species richness that helped expose the plant diversity found also estimated the amount of dung that provide animals to backyard farming, this helped to show synergy livestock farming. Some results suggest that the products obtained in the backyard contribute to feeding the family. Also found plant and animal diversity, as are most ornamental plants, food and medicinal use, it is also possible to identify animals such as chickens, turkeys, sheep, goats, cows, horses and donkeys.
The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields Mexico : Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros Mexico : Logros y alternativas. A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad CFE. The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources.
The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus , which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico.
Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas Pleurotus ostreatus con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.
C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes shiitake utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto. In the first half of the XIX century, the city of Puebla , located in the central high plateau of Mexico suffered, on the occasion of the civil wars, the deterioration of great part of the center.
The city also lived a serious economic depression which affected all the social sectors, especially the poor and the unprotected mass. The conditions of public health were deplorable, and became more complex due to the serious financial problems of the municipality. In this context, in arrive, f We report the first records of Eleutherodactylus nitidus from the state of Tlaxcala and confirm its presence in the central region of Puebla.
Los casos de Puebla y Hermosillo. Los periodos analizados son cuatro : a fundacional, b el Porfiriato, c la modernidad los cuarenta y d los noventa. Morales-Guerrero, Josefina C. This paper is oriented to explain and interpret the meanings of social action performed by actors and agents socio-economic and political involved in the process planning, taking as its starting point the recognition and comprehension of conceptions of regional development outlined in their communications, guidelines and strategic documents that they use to impact in a macro-region as the South-Southeast of Mexico under what is termed as the Plan Puebla -Panama.
The thesis is that regional development is not a spontaneous process, but a process designed and managed through public policies in which multiple actors and agents converge, who assert their priorities and interests in the process of building markets and redistribution of wealth. The question is to interpret and compare the nature, scope and limitations of the. Los resultados mostraron la falta de capacidad de ambos itinerarios para poner en contexto la riqueza patrimonial de los sitios visitados.
Los itinerarios estudiados, relevantes para describir la riqueza patrimonial de la ciudad, distan de cumplir el objetivo de un itinerario: instruir, cultivar y letrar. The lack of disaggregated information and of research, except for a handful of states with particularly grave demographic and reproductive health problems, were barriers to evaluation. It also appeared indispensable to analyze the situations of the nongovernmental organizations involved, and to define priorities among remaining tasks. Two achievements of the forum in Puebla were to reconstitute a coordinating body for follow-up of the Program of Action with a specific work plan, and to reinforce links and communication with state population councils and health institutions in order to facilitate implementation of the Program of Action.
The themes receiving most attention were sexuality and family planning, pregnancy and delivery, and HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Asimismo, las preferencias de los hombres y las mujeres hacia estos productos. Renealmia alpinia Rottb. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption.
Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in tradicional markets. La parte comestible es el arilo de los frutos. Tras la cosecha, se extrae en fresco el arilo y se procesa para su consumo familiar. Ocasionalmente los frutos se comercializan en los mercados tradicionales. Full Text Available Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas southwestern Puebla , Central Mexico is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest.
Data were obtained during hours of field work in days from March to September Six permanent transect 3. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats.
Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores. Epub March. El estudio fue llevado a cabo en sitios con presencia de bosque tropical caducifolio. Se realizaron seis transectos permanentes de 3. Full Text Available La exigua presencia de los intermediarios financieros formales en los municipios rurales mexicanos impulsa el uso de tandas y solicitud de dinero a prestamistas, familiares o amigos.
The case of the Nahuas from the Sierra Negra allows us to establish a set of similarities and differences between these three major categories and to distinguish the features that can potentially guide their study in other cultural contexts. Microstructural analysis of two pre hispanic murals of the Cholula, Puebla archaeological zone; Analisis microestructural de dos murales prehispanicos de la zona arqueologica de Cholula, Puebla , Mexico.
Iturbe C, M. The archaeological site Cholula, state Puebla , in Mexico is famous for its huge pyramid and polychromatic ceramic. In this site there are important traces of mural painting, which were elaborated in the classic period. In this research, we study the pigments of two of these murals. The first is 56 m long and 2. The second is 30 m long and 0. Both murals have different deterioration problems. In order to obtain information about the raw material used in the manufacture of the pigments some samples were taken from different regions of the mural and they were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy EDS.
Thermal fracturing of the well H, Los Humeros , Pue. Well H was drilled for production in , but the well was not able to sustain flow. The well was stimulated by thermal fracturing in three tests made in October Sin embargo, el pozo resulto incapaz de mantenerse fluyendo. Microstructural analysis of two pre hispanic murals of the Cholula, Puebla archaeological zone. Los desastres naturales: el rol del pediatra. To determine the most effective treatment to capture Rhagoletis zoqui and use it as an alternative to chemical insecticides, this study was developed in two orchards of walnut, during June, July and August of in San Nicolas de los Ranchos, Puebla.
The experiment was t There are several options for reconstruction of proximal humerus resections after wide resection for malignant tumors in children. The clavicula pro humero technique is a biologic option that has been used in the past, but there are only scant case reports and small series that comment on the results of the procedure.
Because the longevity of children mandates a reconstruction with potential longevity not likely to be achieved by other techniques, the clavicula pro humero technique may be a potential option in selected patients. Four university hospitals performed the clavicula pro humero technique in eight children aged 8 to 18 years between June and February During that period, general indications for this approach included all reconstructions of the proximal humerus for malignant tumors in children older than 8 years.
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