This project investigates how Italian-native speakers express surprise in their mother tongue and in English as their second language when communicating on Facebook. The objective of this study was to examine, from a psycholinguistic point of view, what leads people to favour a specific linguistic expression when conveying surprise. Psychological, cognitive and neuro-scientific approaches to emotions and surprise Before analysing the verbal expression of surprise, it is necessary to understand what surprise is i.
An emotion is generally defined as a psychophysiological response to a stimulus e. The stimulus is received by the amygdala, which forms and stores memories associated with emotional events. Since these memories are stored in our brain, we can interpret the stimulus and react to it in a specific way.
In other words, we have the emotional stimulus that reaches the amigdala, the process of interpretation and, only then, the psycho-physiological response. With surprise this process — stimulus-interpretation-response — is reversed. When, for instance, two people are talking, a sort of balance is created; the two persons speak in turn carrying on the conversation. When Speaker 1 says something unexpected to Speaker 2, the balance is broken by the latter who does not accept what he has just been told. Then, by asking questions, he may try to re-establish the pre-existing balance.
This exchange of questions and explanations may be seen as the process of interpretation that, in emotions like anger, comes before the emotion arousal. To sum up, while in any emotion we have the sequence stimulus — interpretation — response, in surprise we have stimulus — response — interpretation. Since interpretation comes only after, surprise can be defined as the instinctive response to an unexpected event and not as an emotion by itself Ortony, Moreover, contrary to emotions, surprise lasts only some milliseconds. This difference in duration has been confirmed by experts of body-language as well see Pacori, All these differences between surprise and emotions have led me to consider surprise not as an emotion by itself but rather as an instinctive reaction emotions are generated from.
This interpretation of surprise constituted the starting point of my study on the computer-mediated expression of this instinctive response by English non-native speakers. Yet, analysing the way surprise is conveyed verbally may allow us to better understand the cognitive process of this instinctive reaction. Since surprise is so short in time, people are not given the time to think about how to express it. When speaking in a second language, this lack of time may lead the person to use fixed expressions or to literary translate a.
Further, since surprise is a reaction that makes us loose the control over the situation for only some milliseconds, it is difficult to define what is said at the very moment when the speaker is surprised. Analysing the verbal expression of such an instinctive reaction may therefore reveal how influential a mother tongue is when communicating in a foreign language. The research to date has tended to study the expression of surprise in monolinguals, collecting data in laboratories or from texts because the different language-learning backgrounds — i.
My objective was then to use these obstacles as means to examine how influential a mother tongue and the language-learning background are when expressing an instinctive reaction in a foreign language. In order to obtain the most spontaneous and most natural possible utterances, the data was collected from original Facebook conversations. This way, it was possible to examine the language specific to chats — in opposition to spoken and written language — that, nowadays, is becoming more and more present, and that has been neglected in the past studies on emotions.
For non-native speakers, their level of English and language-learning background were taken into account as well 1: beginner; 2: pre-intermediate; 3: intermediate; 4: upper-intermediate; 5: bilingual. First, a systemic approach was adopted; by examining the combination of the reaction-, comment- and question-segments, my objective was to see whether the expression of surprise changed according to whether the language spoken was a first or a second language. Attention was then focused on the lexical expression of surprise.
After having analysed some features specific to non-native speakers i. By examining all these aspects, this research analyses how non-native speakers express surprise on Facebook. This tendency was identified in both the native and non-native speakers. Yet, in the latter, the expression of surprise resulted less natural as a consequence of the fact that the speakers were communicating in a foreign language. The occurrence of these specific symbols has led me to investigate the codes peculiar to computer-mediated communication and the way they are employed to convey surprise. This study revealed the influence that a mother tongue, the languagelearning background and the kind of communication i.
However, further research is needed in the expression of surprise by non-native speakers as well as in the way it is conveyed in computer-mediated conversations. It might be interesting to conduct a parallel study; a comparison with a research on how, for instance, French native speakers express surprise in English in chats and social networks might lead to more solid findings about the relationship between language and surprise, and first and second language in the expression of instinctive reactions.
Moreover, my research revealed a different use of smileys in Italian and English. Analysing the expression of surprise by non-native speakers of different origins might be a way to examine the use of this specific code in diverse cultures. Harris, C. When is a First Language More Emotional? Psychophysiological Evidence from Bilingual Speakers.
In Pavlenko, A. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Cambridge University Press. Krashen, S. Studia Linguistica, 35 , The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge university press. Zajonc, R. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need no Inferences. American Psychologist, 35, Pacori, M. Come interpretare i messaggi del corpo.
Bari: Giunti Editore. Ivana Baldassarre Dip. Consequently, the traditional distinction between induction and deduction loses ground, since the main assumption of deduction, i. The source of the new paradigm can be indentified with the probabilistic interpretation of conditionals, i.
Differently from propositional logic, according to which conditionals mean that q the consequent follows necessarily from p the antecedent , the probabil-. A large amount of empirical studies e. Fugard et al. Neverthless, the findings are controversial. To our knowledge, there is a lack of studies investigating whether other forms of deductive reasoning are probabilistically conceived by people. However, the two deductive theories make different predictions about the easiness to draw a conclusion from these arguments: ML theory, which assumes that the mind possesses some inference schemas, do not predict differences in reasoning difficulty between the basic connectives, such as those used in this study; MM theory, which assumes that human reasoning is based on building mental models of the possibilities of premises, predicts that MP and the derivation of a conjunct, which require only one model, are easier than the negation of a conjunct from alternative denial, which requires three models Johnson-Laird, On the contrary, according to the new paradigm, the level of believability of the propositional statements would always affect the conclusions.
As previously noted, the new paradigm predictions have been mainly tested with conditional reasoning. For this reason, this study was aimed to estabilish whether these predictions could be extended to conjunctions and alternative denials. The second aim of the study was to investigate whether the instruction to consider the premises as true decreased the believability effect. The connective sentence and statement believability were within-subjects variables, instruction was between-subjects. Reaction times were recorded.
Conditionals, conjunctions and alternative denials were selected through a preliminary study aimed to estabilish the level of believability of these statements on point scale. On the basis of the preliminary study results, 24 statements were selected, 8 for each type of connective: 4 high believability sentences mean between 70 and 90 ; 4 low believability sentences mean between 10 and The main experiment was performed with computer software E-prime 2. Three-ways interaction showed that with logical. Response times were lower with conditionals than the other two connectives, and those of the conjunctions were lower than alternative denials; participants also took less time to respond with highly vs.
The results showed different patterns of choices among the three connective propositions: the participants endorsed more inferences with conditionals, followed by conjunctions and alternative denials. Differently from previous studies e. Moreover, reaction times were lower for conditionals, followed by conjunctions and last by alternative denials On the whole, these results were controversial. They corroborate some predictions of deductive theories: in conformity with MMT predictions, MP and the deduction of a conjunct were easier endorsed than the negation of a conjunct from alternative denials; however, contrary to the MMT predictions, MP was endorsed more often than the deduction of a conjunct.
In fact, MP, although it was affected by the believability of conditionals. Our results partially corroborate the idea that propositional reasoning has a probabilistic nature, since the tendency to endorse inferences in function of the believability of the premises is robust, though not equally distributed among the three connective sentences.
Moreover, the great frequency with which MP was endorsed suggests that conditionals are implicitly conceived in a deductive rather than in a probabilistic way. In conclusion, probabilistic approaches per se cannot explain the variability of results with connective sentences, whereas it appears premature to set aside the idea that people reason deductively.
References Braine, M. Psychological Review, 98, — Evans, J. Experimental Psychology, 56, 77— Thinking and Reasoning, 18, Fugard, A. How people interpret conditionals: Shifts towards the conditional event. Heit, E. Johnson-Laird, P. Deductive reasoning. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, — Propositional reasoning by model. Psychological Review, 99, — Matarazzo, O. Esposito et al. Oaksford, M. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 69— Over D. T The probability of conditionals: The psychological evidence.
Politzer, G. Betting on conditionals. Ramsey, F. The foundations of mathematics and other logical essays. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Singmann, H. The overview focusses on the work of LOCEN directed to understand the systemlevel overall organisation of brain that allows organisms, in particular primates, to express multiple motor behaviours sub-serving multiple needs, and how such behaviors are acquired through learning processes. Computational models of goal-directed and habitual behaviour. Instrumental behaviour is a fundamental means through which animals, and in particular primates, flexibly and adaptively accomplish their multiple needs with variable internal and external conditions.
Instrumental behaviour can be subdivided in habitual and goal-directed behavior. Habitual behaviour brain mechanisms link specific stimuli to instrumetal behaviours S-R , i. Goal-directed behaviour mechanisms, instead, link desired outcomes to instrumental actions A-O Baldassarre et al. The acquisition and expression of multiple behaviours relies on two highy integrated brain systems Baldassarre and Mirolli ; Baldassarre et al.
The first is related to the two main cortico-cortical pathways of brain Caligiore et al. Motivational systems behind motivation and learning Ventral striatum is a key nexus between the generation of motivational value of action outcomes e. The values of outcomes can be generated by. This generation of value is based on Pavlovian processes underlying the triggering of innate reactions towards the brain, body, and world, Mirolli et al. Alternatively, values can be generated by intrinsic motivations Baldassarre and Mirolli, ; Baldassarre et al.
The assignment of value to possible action outcomes and goals strongly relies on the production of neuromodulators, such as dopamine and noradrenaline, regulating the overall brain functioning Fiore et al. Conclusions The overall organisation of brain architecture and processes subserving primates' flexible behaviour is very complex. However, the work of LOCENISTC-CNR reviewed here shows that its interdisciplinary investigation, pivoting on system-level computational models and computationally informed theoretical analyses of empirical evidence, can lead to identify relatively few main architectural and functioning principles underlying them.
Bibliografia Baldassarre, G. Baldassarre, G. Forward and bidirectional planning based on reinforcement learning and neural networks in a simulated robot. In Butz, M. Berlin: Springer. What Are Intrinsic Motivations?
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A Biological Perspective. The hierarchical organisation of cortical and basal-ganglia systems: a computationally-informed review and integrated hypothesis. In Baldassarre, G. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Intrinsically motivated learning in natural and artificial systems. Neural Networks, 41, Frontiers in Psychology, 5 , e Barto, A.
Caligiore, D. Cartoni, E. Modular and hierarchical brain organization to understand assimilation, accommodation and their relation to autism in reaching tasks: a developmental robotics hypothesis. Adaptive Behavior. Chersi, F. Ciancio, A.
Fiore, V. Mannella, F. The interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental processes in devaluation experiments: a computational embodied neuroscience model tested with a simulated rat. In Tosh, C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mirolli, M. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain and behaviour. Connection Science, 22 3 , Pezzulo, G. From actions to goals and vice-versa: theoretical analysis and models of the ideomotor principle and TOTE.
Polizzi di Sorrentino, E. Santucci, V. Schembri, M. In EpiRob , pp. Seepanomwan, K. Taffoni, F. Thill, S. Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder henceforth ASD or simply autism is increasingly considered a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder responsible for social impairments AA. Here we focus in particular on the support and development of social competence in children. The attention on design for children with autism should be directed to make the child feel emotionally comfortable within the environment, to value the presence of others, and to develop basic communication and reciprocal interaction skills before embarking in supporting the acquisition of complex linguistic skills.
The development of new technologies has also contributed to improve emotion recognition in ASD individuals enhancing their social skills Pioggia et al. Interactive products are opening up new learning and playing opportunities for children with autism. A key element of these products is the need to be able to motivate the child to use them. Activities that children feel passionate about will be much better at motivating their learning processes Papert, as reported in Kestenbaum Although autistic children can be highly sensitive, or insensitive, to stimuli, they truly enjoy sensory rewards, such as sounds, music, vibration, and deep.
Main purposes. It is an interactive transitional object directed to enhance social interaction and communication between a child with autism and an adult. The features can be remotely controlled to adjust the. The feedback can thus be either directly caused by the child's action, or it can be controlled remotely by an adult. Children with autism can interact with the prototype in the ways they prefer e. The positive sensorial feedback focuses on the interpersonal communication and on the achievement of their goals during the interaction.
Towards an Experimental Protocol to Evaluate the Wearable Utility This section presents a preliminary hypothesis on a possible experimental protocol usable to evaluate the utility of the proposed wearable. The preliminary ideas proposed here will be refined together with specialists, such as therapists and students who work with autism, as well as together with autistic children's parents. The basic protocol to investigate these aspects could be as follows. The experiments could have a between-subjects design, with two groups of children with autism in the same range of ASD and age.
The experimental sessions would take place as the normal therapeutic sessions already involving the participants and would be based on the same tasks for both groups. This would allow the use of the device in already experienced therapeutic sessions and environment. The recordings by the pillow would be paral-. The device can be used both to support social interactions and to improve social and basic communication skills through its prolonged use.
Future work will further develop the device properties and possibilities of interaction with external devices e. It will also investigate, with structured experiments, the actual impact of the use of the device on the autistic child's social capabilities and on their long term improvement. References AA. Special issue on neuroscience: The autism enigma. Nature, , Early autism detection: are we ready for routine screening? Pediatrics, 1 , e—7.
Adaptive Behavior, 22 5 , — Chevallier, C. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Neural dynamics of autistic behaviors: cognitive, emotional, and timing substrates. Psychological Review, 3 , — Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain. Nature Neuroscience, 12 8 , —2. Designing for diversity: developing complex adaptive tangible products.
Tangible and Embedded Interaction, The challenges of IDC. Communications of the ACM, 48 1 , Collaborative technologies for children with autism. ACM Press. An android for enhancing social skills and emotion recognition in people with autism. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy pp. Sebastiana Boscarino Dip. In questo Locke e gli altri non si discostavano dalla posizione di Cartesio, che aveva escluso categoricamente l'esistenza di un mondo mentale per gli animali. Da secoli i biologi si sono occupati invece della sfera mentale degli animali, a partire da Darwin stesso, ma soprattutto con l'avvento dell'etologia, Lorenz e Tinbergen, ma soprattutto per gli aspetti cognitivi meno impegnativi, come le reazioni percettive ed emotive, o il risolvere semplici problemi.
Sulla stessa linea Cabanac , che ha approfondito sperimentalmente certe reazioni emotive primordiali, come febbre e tachicardia, riscontrabili in rettili, mammiferi e uccelli, ma non negli anfibi. Ricerche quindi deviate su aspetti della coscienza molto lontani dal nucleo indicato da Locke, la storia personale, a cui la psicologia moderna ha dedicato un meccanismo ben preciso, la memoria episodica Tulving, Gli animali la posseggono?
Su entrambi i punti arriva ben presto la smentita di Clayton e Dickinson , dopo studi sulle ghiandaie californiane, graziosi uccellini, che vivono in foreste sempre verdi dell'America, nutrendosi di due cibi: pinoli o bruchi. Si pensa invece che dal primo lavoro di Clayton e Dickinson ad oggi, si siano accumulate interessanti nuove evidenze, che anzitutto permettono di smentire Suddendorf e Corballis, gli animali viaggiano abbondantemente nel tempo, all'indietro ma pure in avanti.
I loro preferiti sono i maialini dello Yucatan, che si sono dimostrati bravissimi a tenere distinti il what un tipo di oggetto , where il posto e il which il contesto in un ambito sperimentale. Oltre a queste esperienze dirette, altrettanto interessanti sono i progressi rispetto alle basi neurologiche della memoria episodica. Allen e Fortin hanno ripercorso, nella storia evolutiva, il sorgere nei cervelli delle strutture neurali alla base della memoria episodica, che sono anzitutto l'ippocampo, e poi la regione para ippocampale, e le connessioni di entrambe con la corteccia prefrontale.
Allen T. Cabanac, M. Chalmers, D. Denton, D. Griffin D.
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Kouwenberg A. Mendl M. Current evidence and implications for welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science Suddendorf T. The mental time travel debate: reply to Clayton et al. B Tulving E. Van Schaik C. Intendo giuochi da scacchiera, giuochi di carte, giuochi di palla, gare sportive, e via discorrendo. Come ho detto: non pensare, ma osserva! Ora passa ai giuochi di carte: qui trovi molte corrispondenze con quelli della prima classe, ma molti tratti comuni sono scomparsi, altri ne sono subentrati. Confronta il giuoco degli scacchi con quello della tria.
Pensa allora ai solitari. Veder somiglianze emergere e sparire […]. Murphy Eppure, i fecondi risultati di queste ricerche sono stati scarsamente considerati nel dibattito filosofico sulla definizione di arte. Tuttavia, Dean adotta una versione della teoria dei prototipi piuttosto datata ed inoltre limitata, se consideriamo le alternative oggi disponibili nel campo delle scienze cognitive cfr.
Adajian, T. Trinchero Ricerche filosofiche, Einaudi, Torino, A giugno esistono milioni. Si stima che circa Sono stati effettuati numerosi studi relativi all'utilizzo di Facebook Ellison, Steinfield, Lampe , Caci et al. Young ha sviluppato l'Internet Addiction Test IAT dimostrando che gli Internet-dipendenti mostrano una maggiore trascuratezza nei confronti delle loro famiglie, del loro lavoro, degli studi, delle relazioni interpersonali, oltre che della cura di se stessi Young I soggetti sperimentali hanno partecipato su base volontaria.
Media DS Internet 1,81 0,36 1,85 0,40 2,08 0,99 1,56 0,02 2,44 1,34 1,74 0,34 1,89 0, Tale ri-. Test T di Wilcoxon Internet vs. Facebook F1 F2. Bibliografia Andreassen, C. Development of a facebook addiction scale 1, 2. Psychological reports, 2. Backstrom, L. Four degrees of separation. Boyd, D. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 13 1.
Caci, B. Facebook as a small world: a topological hypothesis. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 2.
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Sistemi Intelligenti, 3. The big five personality factors as predictors of facebook usage. Facebook: topology to personality and back — an actor-based simulation. In European Perspectives on Cognitive Science. New Bulgarian University Press. Cardaci, M. In Fenomenologia della scoperta, a cura di Maldonato, M,. Bruno Mondadori. Reti sociali, informazioni individuali. Ellison, N. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 4. Ferraro, G. D'Amico, A. Garcia, D. Personality and Individual Differences, Kuss, D. Excessive online social networking: Can adolescents become addicted to facebook.
Education and Health, 29 4. Skeels, M. When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin. Young K. Internet addiction: symptoms, evaluation and treatment. In Innovations in Clinical Practice, a cura di L. Effect of stimulus type and experimental procedure on a visual discrimination task. Introduction Diurnal primate species are frequently studied in the context of learning abilities in the visual cognition domain since they most rely on sight to gather information from the environment Fleagle, ; Gilad et al.
Virtually all experimental paradigms employed to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this purpose, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation can be used. Specifically, the necessity to carry out in depth analyses of cognitive processes led to the development of increasingly sophisticated methods for data collection. In particular, in the last decades, there was a spread use of computerised procedures in a growing number of animal taxa e.
This trend stressed the necessity to compare data obtained with computerised procedures to those acquired from procedures that require to be administered by a human experimenter. On the one hand, computerised tasks allow to present a high number of trials within a scheduled time slot and also to present stimuli and to register responses very precisely in terms of both accuracy and response time preventing experimenter biases. On the other hand, this kind of procedures are almost exclusively administered by using images presented on a computer screen.
Systematic comparisons of the same subjects tested by using different types of methodological procedures would contribute to clarify how methodological aspects may affect learning behaviour in cognitive tasks. Materials and Methods Subjects were eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys four males and four females. Capuchins were trained to discriminate which stimulus, between two stimuli of the same shape but different size, was the bigger one.
Stimuli consisted of pairs of: a. In each experimental condition, the stimuli could be linear-shaped or circular-shaped. The Food condition included a pair of salted sticks 10 cm and 6 cm in length, respectively , and a pair of circular hosts 6. In the Food and the Object conditions, the apparatus consisted of a metal trolley with a sliding tray which could be moved forward and backward on a support. A human experimenter located the stimuli on the sliding tray, moved them closer to the subject and provided a food reward in case of correct responses.
In the Food condition the reward was the food item selected, whereas in the Object condition the reward was a piece of peanut. In the Image condition, the apparatus consisted of a computerized workstation with a laptop connected to a touch-screen and an automatic food dispenser. A software served to present the stimuli, to record the response behaviour and to control the releasing of a banana-flavoured pellet in case of correct responses.
For the three types of stimuli we compared the mean number of trials to reach the learning criterion and the mean percentage of correct responses to acquisition. Results and discussion The results of Experiment 1 foods vs. Both the different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation may have played a key role. The results of the second experiment objects indicated that objects discrimination led to intermediate levels of performance compared with foods and images, both in terms of number of trials to acquisition and accuracy at. Specifically, as previously observed for foods, capuchins needed significantly less trials to reach the learning criterion with objects than images.
However, in terms of accuracy at acquisition, objects did not differ from both foods and images. Finally, no clear evidence emerged in favour of the ability of capuchins to immediately generalise the solution of the problem across the three different conditions. Thus, similarities among conditions used in this study seem to be not sufficient to promote generalization processes, albeit capuchin monkeys are able to transfer their discrimination ability across different conditions in other experimental settings e. Altogether, these results show that capuchin monkeys can learn a visual discrimination task presented in different settings, but the learning time and the accuracy of their responses may vary depending on both the stimulus type and the experimental procedure adopted.
Finally, this study suggests that the manipulation of the stimuli could facilitate the comprehension of their size, as argued for humans Gori et al. Future studies in nonhuman species would need to investigate all these factors and their mutual interactions in order to understand their effects in visual cognition processes. Bayer, K. The touch-screen method as an implement for dog experiments. Barros, R. Generalized identity matching-to-sample in Cebus apella. Cook, R. Successive two-item same—different discrimination and concept learning by pigeons.
Extent and limits of the matching concept in monkeys Cebus apella. Fagot, J. Evidence for large long-term memory capacities in baboons and pigeons and its implications for learning and the evolution of cognition. Fleagle, J. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Gilad, Y. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.
Plos Biol. Gori, M. Impaired visual sizediscrimination in children with movement disorders. Neuropsychologia 50, Hanggi, E. Long-term memory for categories and concepts in horses Equus caballus. Mueller-Paul J. Touchscreen performance and knowledge transfer in the red-footed tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria. Truppa, V. Identity concept learning in matching-to-sample tasks by tufted capuchin monkeys Cebus apella.
Veit, L. Abstract rule neurons in the endbrain support intelligent behaviour in corvid songbirds. Vonk, J. Gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Orangutan Pongo abelii understanding of first- and second-order relations. Marcengo, Buriano e Geymonat Bandura ; Nakajima, Lehdonvirta, Tokunaga e Kimura I sistemi IoT possono dunque favorire il cambiamento nei comportamenti degli utenti: su questa base sono stati sviluppati diversi tool es.
Froehlich et al. Questa ricerca ha gli scopi di prospettare un sistema IoT capace di promuovere un cambiamento comportamentale e di presentare alcune riflessioni per la progettazione di affordance nei sistemi IoT. Il sistema deve essere in grado di integrare questi dati e ragionare su di essi, es. La nozione di segnale fatico permette di immaginare come questi nuovi tipi di affordance possano essere integrati in oggetti materiali. Ricerca e progettazione dovrebbero orientarsi verso la creazione di questi tipi di affordance materiali, in modo da creare sistemi IoT che, pienamente integrati nei contesti di vita quotidiani degli utenti, siano con essi in comunicazione costante.
Bandura, A. PsychoOncology, 22, Carassa, A. Movement, action, and situation. Rey Solaz eds. In Proc. Cognitive Science Society, Cipriani, F. Hungry Minds Froehlich, J. Bransford eds. Erlbaum Jakobson, R. Feltrinelli Kay, M. In ACM Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, Marcengo, A. Springer Nakajima, T. In Conf. Designing Interactive Systems, Tirassa, M. Emerging Communication, 10, Troina fbuono oasi. Troina gtrubia oasi. Varie ricerche hanno mostrato come alcuni individui con ASD preferiscono i robot agli esseri umani.
Ad esempio, Robins et al. Duquette et al. In altri casi l'imitazione si sviluppa spontaneamente come parte di un gioco con il bambino che imita i comportamenti del robot e viceversa Robins et al. Questo gioco si estende anche alle interazioni triadiche tra un bambino con autismo, un adulto o bambino e un robot. Materiali e metodo 2. Kim et al. De Graaf et al. Nessuno dei bambini e degli educatori aveva precedentemente avuto esperienza con un robot. Le informazioni sui partecipanti e sui tempi di interazione con il robot sono riassunte nella Tabella I.
Sigla V. Questa distanza ha permesso ai bambini di creare un proprio spazio personale positivo per l'interazione Fridin et al. Durante il gioco il ricercatore, utilizzando lo smartphone, opera il robot da remoto e ne controlla il comportamento. In seguito chiede al bambino di imitare alcuni semplici movimenti corporei degli arti superiori e inferiori.
Nella fase conclusiva il robot saluta il bambino verbalmente e con il gesto chiedendo inoltre una stretta di mano, ringraziandolo per la sua partecipazione. Per analizzare l'interazione abbiamo usato quattro criteri proposti da Robins et al. I comportamenti sono stati valutati grazie alla registrazione in video delle sessioni sperimentali utilizzando la tecnica di un fotogramma a secondo. Il bambino V. Sorprendentemente, al termine della sessione, ha salutato il robot e il ricercatore. Robins et al. Bibliografia Bird, G. Corisco in press De Graaf, M. Robots, 24, — Fridin, M.
Human Behav. IEEE Int. Access Inf. Autism Dev. Symbolic theories of meaning assume that linguistic meaning arises from the quasi-syntactic combination of mental symbols. This view is often conjoined with a modularist assumption that meaning is processed in an informationally encapsulated way such that these mental symbols are amodal, i. Amodal-symbolic theories of meaning have more recently been challenged by embodied-emulative theories according to which linguistic meaning is grounded in sensory, motor and emotional processes and semantic comprehension consists in emulations of scenarios involving such processes Barsalou, ; Kemmerer, ; Gallese and Lakoff, The amodal-symbolic view is often aligned with the minimalist semantic claim of bottom-up compositionality according to which the truth evaluable semantic content of a sentence is fully determined by its syntactic structure and lexical content where only a small number of lexical items e.
With regard to the semantic integration of a sentence in a discourse, this implies a two-step process: discourse-level information is considered only after sentence local meaning is established. The two-step model is challenged by the idea of free pragmatic enrichment. Recanati, according to which contextual information can be immediately incorporated into the truth-evaluable sentence meaning such that global context and lexical content contribute to sentence meaning at once, leading to a one-step model. In this paper we tackle both these debates presenting the results of an experimental investigation in which, using event-related potentials ERPs , we tested the diverging predictions of two-step and single-step models concerning the time course of the integration of discourse-level information.
Since we were also interested in the contrast between amodal and embodiedemulative view, we combined both aims choosing contextual information that is related to bodily information. We created short stories in which a human character selected an object to accomplish a specific goal. There were two possible situations: in the first case, the combination between the object and the action gave rise to a familiar or conventional interaction for example, using a funnel to pour water ; in the second type of situation, the combination between the object and the action was novel and unconventional for example, using the funnel to hang the coat.
Distinguishing between conventional and unconventional interactions we wanted to emphasize the difference between common uses of objects and novel uses that they can take on because of their physical properties. The term affordance is commonly referred to both these cases Gibson, ; see Borghi and Riggio, for a distinction between stable and temporary affordances. However, a more subtle and theoretically interesting distinction in the domain of affordances can be made between ad hoc affordances and telic roles. Ad hoc affordances are dispositional properties of objects and environments in a particular given situation.
In contrast, the telic role of an object is stored in semantic long-term memory as part of the lexical entry of the concept under which the object is categorized. The telic component of the lexical entry specifies the function or the purpose of an object Pustejovsky, In our experiment the ad hoc affordance was chosen such that it was incompatible with the lexically specified telic role.
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To guarantee the ad hoc character, we invented unusual scenarios to make sure that subjects could not recruit information from previously made experiences. Introducing this context generates a contrast between the lexically specified affordance of pouring the telic role and the contextually induced affordance of hanging the ad hoc affordance.
Once the contrast between ad hoc affordance and the telic role be-. Using an ERP paradigm, we specifically investigated the time course of how this conflict is resolved. In particular, we focused on the N effect, a negative ERP deflection peaking around ms after stimulus onset and larger over centro-parietal electrodes. The N has become particularly relevant in language studies given its close relation to the processing of word meanings in context Kutas and Federmeier, However, this would imply a violation of semantic expectations within the sentence composition process whether or not the linguistic context induces a conflicting ad hoc affordance.
A clearly enhanced N component should be elicited, indicating that the subject is experiencing interpretative problems.
The contextual information should be taken into account only after sentence meaning composition has been completed. The N component should not be enhanced. On the contrary, single-step models assume that the conflict between lexically specified telic roles and contextually provided ad-hoc affordances is resolved already in the process of sentence meaning composition because contextual information is immediately taken into account.
Consequently, in the process of sentence meaning composition no violation of semantic expectation is predicted and, hence, no enhanced N The pattern of N effects observed in our experiment is consistent with the predictions of single-step models. These effects are best explained, we suggest, by the following hypothesis: If the preceding linguistic discourse induces an ad hoc affordance for an object that conflicts with the lexically. These results have striking implications for both the debates we wanted to tackle. As for the role of sensory-motor information in semantic processing, the immediate integration of ad hoc affordances during the process of meaning composition cannot be easily conciliated with amodal-symbolic accounts of meaning, and is consistent, instead, with embodied-emulative theories of language and cognition.
Barsalou, L. Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and brain sciences, 22, pp. Borg, E. Pursuing Meaning. Oxford University Press. Borghi, A. Sentence comprehension and simulation of objects temporary, canonical and stable affordances. Brain Research, , Cappelen, H. Oxford: Blackwell. Fodor, J. The language of thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Gallese, V. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, pp. Gibson, J.
The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kemmerer, D. How words capture visual experience, in Malt and P. Wolff Eds. Kutas, M. Thirty years and counting: Finding meaning in the N component of the event-related brain potential ERP.
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Annual Review of Psychology, 62, Pustejovsky, J. The Generative Lexicon. Pylyshyn, Z. Computation and cognition. Toward a foundation for cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press. Assessing fluency in persons with stuttering by complex automatized and non-automatized dualtask conditions. Introduction According to the main explanatory models on stuttering, specific cognitive functions are involved in speech planning and in fluency management.
In general, they are based on cognitive architectures formed by modules, processes and function controls, aimed at resource management and regulation. According to the HMM, only the first level modules, the simplest ones, are similar to those described by Fodor, while the second and third level modules are less computationally encapsulated and are the result of SAS management. These modules can control learned automatic behaviours.
This model acknowledges a relevant role of central and executive functions in fluency learning and regulation. A secondary task without the proper rhythm and level of automatization could not be assembled with speech and would not grant any sensible improvement in fluency. The performance of 18 PWS, adolescents and adults, was assessed in three conditions: A. Higher performance in condition A would demonstrate that every kind of secondary task could interfere with speech. Higher performance in condition B would demonstrate that a dysfunctional control of the executive system over fluency could be corrected by a distracting secondary task.
Higher performance in condition C would demonstrate that the assembly of the action patterns allows the SAS better control over fluency. Material and methods Participants - eighteen PWS participated to the research 12 males; 6 females , aged between 14 and 33, attending a single or group stuttering treatment. None of the participants previously followed training proposed in our experimental program.
All the participants agreed to take part in the research and signed an informed consent form. After this reading session, the participants underwent the three conditions listed above in a counterbalanced order. After each condition, they quietly read the text again in order to facilitate the recall of the contents. Condition A. Participants described the contents of the text with a monologue of at least 55 words, without any other concurrent task.
Condition B. Participants described the contents of the text with a monologue of at least 55 words, and at the same time had to perform a complex motor activity, impossible to automate to shuffle 55 poker cards with asymmetrical movements. We assume that in this condition, the SAS was mainly engaged in the management of the attentional shift. Condition C.
Participants described the contents of the text with a monologue of at least 55 words, and at the same time had to perform a coordinated and automatic complex motor activity to turn one card onto the table for every word said. We assume that in this condition, the SAS was mainly engaged in managing the assembly of the two tasks in a single scheme. Results and comments For each condition, the amount of disfluencies produced in the first 55 words of the speech and the execution time form the first to the 55th word have been computed. As will later be shown, the amount of disfluencies was consistently different among conditions, while the execution time was relatively stable.
Concerning disfluencies, over a sample of words in each condition, in condition A participants produced a total of stuttered words; in condition B stuttered words were produced; in condition C just 61 stuttered words were produced. In other words, the fluency increase in condition C is unequivocally and significantly different. In addition, comparing the performance of all the participants, it is possible to notice that all of them had an increase in the condition C, showing a fluency increase due to the assembly factor.
In conditions A, B and C, the performance duration has been respectively s. Conclusions The research presented in this paper is a pilot study aiming at investigating the effects of a dual task over fluency control. It also proposes taking the dual-task paradigm out of the experimental domain to make it the ground for stuttering treatment trainings. We argue that this trend should increase even more, taking to the development of training tasks more explicitly built on the dual-task paradigm. The present research was aimed at investigating the contribution of the secondary task in facilitating stuttering.
Specifically, we demonstrated how fluency can be increased by involving the person in the coordination of the two tasks into a new executive scheme. This function is clearly regulated by the SAS, which intervenes in sustaining the newly learned processes until they are automatic and autonomous, increasing the fluency speed and the resource optimization. Obviously, at the beginning of the development process, the action is slowed down by the SAS intervention, whose primary aim is the accuracy in task execution.
Subsequently, the consolidation of automatisms will free the SAS from the coordination, leaving it available for coping with unpredictable situations, emotional stress or more demanding conditions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Non siamo qui per caso - Il potere delle coincidenze by Marco Cesati Cassin. Get A Copy. More Details Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews.
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