This omission is to be regretted, for nothing that Garrick evfer wrote allows us to penetrate so deeply into his heart and to reach the man himself under the mask which the actor seldom ceased to wear. There are some long quotations from them in Joseph Knight's David Garrick, chap. Fitzgerald, too, has quoted fragments of these letters in the second chapter of his Life, but with so many errors, omissions, and even additions, that they are hardly to be recognized. Thus the last sentence of the letter we give on page 23, is printed by Mr.
Fitzgerald p. But there was no Ann in the Garrick family ; the genealogy given at the commencement of the same Lije proves this! In another quotation p. The original letter confines the breach of sobriety to one unnamed lady, and reads : " My Grandmother sends her blessing, Mrs. Lowndes her love and service, togeather with Aunt Kinaston and Cousin Bailye's family.
David was a bond of affection between father and mother ; to him must be accorded the high praise — is there any higher? Even then, Mrs. Garrick's lot was a trying one and there is a heart- breaking note in those few lines of hers of which a copy is preserved in the Forster Collection : I must tell my Dear Life and Soul that I am not able to live any longer without him for I grow very jealous ; but in the midst of all this I do not blame my dear.
I have very sad dreams for you. O that I had you in my arms! I would tell my Dear Life how much I am his. When they did meet again, it was only to prepare for another and greater separation. The father returned to England in , and the same year David, with his younger brother George, was admitted amongst the very select band of pupils that Samuel Johnson had succeeded in assembling in his Academy at Edial. The Garricks had hoped to send their son to the University; in this plan they had counted, perhaps, on the assistance of Mr.follow
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A marriage late in life turned this patron's charity in a homeward direction, and, as the captain's very modest resources hardly war- ranted him in pursuing the project without aid, it was decided that the young man should go to the Bar. On his arrival in the capital David entered his name on the books of Lincoln's Inn ; he then continued his way to Rochester, where, ia the house of the Rev.
John Oolson, he was to prepare for a forensic career by a course of instruction in " mathematics, philosophy, and humane learning. The first was that of his father, who died soon after his son's departure from Lichfield ; the second, that of his uncle, the Lisbon wine-merchant. Moreover, the poor captain had little to distribute among his children. With a part of his uncle's legacy David paid his board and his teaching at Mr. David took charge of the town office, while Peter remained, as head of the family, at Lichfield and made a home there for his mother and sisters.
His biographers have had, as a rule, to content themselves with representing him in his cellars at Durham Yard, Strand, close by the spot on which rose, some thirty years later, that Adelphi Terrace where he died, and with quoting Poote's very sour description of his stock as " Three quarts of vinegar. I wrote to you by M' Robins and sent y' wig ; I hope before this you will have com- ply'd with y" contents of It [i.
Pray my best services to Mr. Sadal and tell him his nephew is at present very well, tho he has been troubled with his old disorder.
Aïe Aïe Aïe !
I have got Dapar [? It is to be supposed that the intervention of Messrs. Webster and Maddox was unsuccessful ; for in October, , Giffard had certainly not obtained the needful permission. To evade the stipulations of the Act, he then hit on the ingenious device of giving free performances of plays, after a concert at which the audience paid for their seats. I would advise M' Sadal to let him attend D' Nicols lectures ; tell him I say so, and that, Damn him, I have a small veneration for his rotund Paunch, and no despicable opinion of his Brains, and that likewise I have a much greater for y" Rest of his family.
I shall receive the Kinaston's pension next week and will give you notice accordingly. I am etc. I am very uneasy till you send Me a particular Acc't of my Mother ; I hear by Severall hands she is in great Danger, pray my Duty, and I desire nothing may be con- ceal'd from Me. Dear Peter, Y" sincerely, D. The Ale I have receiv'd safe. Y" Carriage came in all to about 11 shillings. I believe it will prove good. I should be glad of some orders. Three weeks later she died, and was buried at Lichfield on September 28th, The date is of some importance, as all save one of the actor's biographers have assigned Mrs.
Garrick's death to the same year as that of her husband. James's Powder. Quoted from G. Baker's Unpublished Correspondence, p. Parsons gives the date of Mrs. Although his inclination was already, as formerly at Lisbon, overmastering his attempts at business and carrying him towards the stage, he refused to darken the last years of his mother's life by embarking on a career which was considered dis- honourable, and which her old-fashioned, cathedral- town respectability would have regarded with horror.
He showed here, as in his earlier relations with his parents, a tender respect which is all to his credit. How difficult the temptation must have been to resist is plain from the first of the two letters quoted above. There we see him on friendly terms with the actor-manager who was, in the following year, to present him to the public in Bichard III. There we find him, too, supplying wine to the famous Bedford Coffee-house, the rooms of which were soon to ring with his praises, and were later to hear the railings of Mtzpatrick and his friends against the monarch of the stage.
He had already written his first piece, the sketch Lethe, and seen it produced at Drury Lane April 16th, at a Benefit offered to his friend Giffard. He had made the acquaintance of ' This anecdote is recounted, on the faith of Dr. As a matter of fact, the actor was twenty-five, and not thirty, at the date of his first appearance ; but this slip is possibly due to Northcote's informant. In tlie character of "Lord Ckalkstone " in the farce of Lethe. From a print in the collection of A.
With the young Irish actress he fell madly in love, wrote her verses in the public papers, disputed her favours with titled rivals, and passed for being loved by her. He was already a fre- quenter of wings and green-rooms ; and when, in March , his friend Yates was suddenly seized with an indisposition which prevented him from playing his part of Harlequin at Goodman's Eields, our young wine-merchant hid his com- mercial respectability under the spangled costume and the black mask, exchanged his pen for the cardboard sword, and replaced the sick actor.
At that date his mother was dead, and his few re- maining scruples were fast melting away. Perhaps had cash not been so low, or had Peter succeeded in sending him more orders, business might have made a better resistance, The unoccupied days left him too much leisure for the conning of parts ; the too brilliantly occupied nights made Durham Yard look miserably dingy next morning.
The affairs of Garrick Bros, must have languished during the summer months of , ,while the London partner was touring, incognito, at Ipswich with his friend Giffard's company. A dozen lines will resume all that needs be stated : in a new triumph welcomed Garrick to Dublin ; from that year till he was the chief star of the Drury Lane company ; marks his famous quarrel with Macklin.
In he deserts Drury Lane for Covent Garden ; then he becomes the partner of Lacy in buying the licence of the former theatre, and establishes himself as actor- manager. In he makes his first trip to Paris ; in he brings on the ' October 20th, ; Forster Collection, vol. Garrick's birth and parentage. She was probably an illegitimate daughter of the Earl of Burlington ; it seems difficult otherwise to account for the protection extended to her by the Burlington family, and for the fact that the Earl gave her a dowry. The curious are referred to Lee Lewes's Memoirs, or to J.
Knight's David Garrick, pp.
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What is certain is that she was an excellent wife to Garrick, and that the actor was devotedly attached to her. In her letter to George Garrick about his brother's illness p.
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In wd age she lived to be ninety-eight , her thriftiness developed into a less creditable characteristic. When she travelled with her husband in France she was much admired for her beauty, her gentle manners, and her devotion to David ; the letters of Garrick's foreign corre- spondents refer again and again to his charmante Spouse.
A few years later his acting is bitterly criticized by Eitzpatrick, who foments the Half-pay riots. His popularity being somewhat on the wane, he decides to leave England, and travels on the Continent from to ; is the date of the Shakespearean Jubilee, organized by Garrick at Stratford. In he retires from the stage, and dies on January 20th, As it is our intention to study especially those features of his activity which later attracted the attention of his French friends, we will, after this r6suin6 of his life, consider briefly in him the actor, the admirer of Shakespeare, the author, and the man.
From the very beginning of his career he played all parts with equal ease. Thus, in the course of his first season, he metamorphosed himself into characters so widely different as that dreadful minister of hell, Richard III. Yet more ; in the same evening, after representing the age and weakness of tortured, maddened Lear, he became the young, stupid, vicious, country-lout.
Master Johnny in Gibber's School-boy. What great actor would to-day dare assume disguises so diverse? Our modern stage has, indeed, become so highly specialized that such Protean artists are looked upon with some disdain, and relegated to the music-halls. It is true that in a similar remark might almost have been made; the chief actors of the time were usually masters in one style, or famous in two or three characters.
There is a sameness in every other actor. Gibber is something of a coxcomb in everything, and Wolsey and Syphax and lago all smell strong of Lord Foppington. Booth was a philosopher in Oato, and was a philosopher in everything else. His passion in Hotspur and Lear was much of the same nature, whereas yours was an old man's passion and an old man's voice and action ; and in the four parts wherein I have seen you — Richard, Chamont, Bayes, and Lear — I never saw four actors more different from one another than you are from yourself.
Who would believe that the same man could, the next ' The Eev. At this date he was tutor in Lord Carpenter's family at London. Cunningham, vol. In our century that honour was reserved for England. This, again, struck all those who witnessed his first perform- ances. The young actor had nothing of that measured, rhythmic declamation, of those stiff and heavy movements, of that majestic sluggish- ness which reduced what should have been acting to an exchange of recitatives. On the contrary, he endeavoured "to suit the action to the word and the word to the action," and, following ever the counsel of Shakespeare, " to hold the mirror up to nature.
Moreover, his pieces, like those of his contempo- raries, are full of movement; they need to be lived far more than to be declaimed. This is the essential difference between French and English classical tragedy — a difference the explanation of which is to be found in the character of either race. The French pieces appeal specially to the reason ; the poet sets forth everything in words, and the audience might well listen to his verses with closed eyes. On the English stage action plays an important part, and one may say, without exaggeration, that the spoken word often forms the accompaniment and commentary of that action.
French tragedy, essentially a literary and aristocratic production, bound by the laws and traditions of antiquity, translates action into verse, and, to avoid the brutal fact shown nakedly on the stage, freely employs confidents, soliloquies by principal actors, and narrations of events by subordinates. English tragedy, presenting its rich picture of life to a general public, ungloved and unperfumed, mitigates nothing of the cruelty of existence, but shows the terrible effects of all the passions — the blow that killed, the corpse that called forth tears and indignation, the madness wrought by folly, and the punishment of vice and inhumanity.
Compare Shakespeare's Othello with Corneille's Sorace. See in the one jealousy kindled by lago's winks and nods and rough- sketched hints, the intrigue all turning on that little piece of white linen tm mouchoir! If he did not succeed in making them as living as those of the model he pretended to despise, it was not only that he lacked genius for the stage, but also, as we have already said, that the difference reposed on a dissimilarity of racial temperament.
Macbeth and Britannicus ; Mardius of de La Fosse with Venice preserved, by Otway ; or Lillo's George Barnwell and Moore's Gamester, with their first adaptations on the French stage; finally, Ducis's arrangements of Shakespeare's tragedies with the originals. Contemporary portraits of the chief players who preceded Garrick are not sufficiently numerous nor precise to allow us to follow in detail the development of this high-flown style ; but we know that Quin, the public favourite at the moment of Garrick's appearance, had adopted a monotonous and colour- less system of declamation, devoid of action ; "he did not distinguish characters from one another," it has been said, " except by costume and by outbursts of fury"'; whilst a dramatist of the time gives of him the following descrip- tion : " With very little variation of cadence, and in a deep, full tone, accompanied by a sawing kind of action, which had more of the senate than of the stage in it, he rolled out his heroics with an' air of dignified indifference that seemed to disclaim the plaudits that were bestowed upon ' " We conquered France, but felt our captive's charms ; Her arts, victorious, triumphed o'er our arms.
Unable to express emotions, whether violent or tender, he was forced and languid in action, and ponderous and sluggish in movement. In the great characters of tragedy he was lost, and the most trustworthy of contemporary critics declares that people will remember with pleasure his Brutus and his Cato, and wish to forget his Richard and his Lear.
It will be remembered that, when Quin saw Garrick act for the first time, lie declared that, if the young fellow was right, he and the other actors of the day were wrong. Further, he compared Garrick to Whitefield, whose preaching at that time was emptying the regular churches. Schism, he cries, has turned the nation's brain. But eyes wiU open, and to church again. Thou great InfalUble, forbear to roar ; Thy bulla and errors are revered no more.
When doctrines meet with general reprobation It is not Heresy, but Reformation. And rous'd him like a giant from his sleep. Ev'n from his slumbers we advantage reap : With double force th' enliven'd scene he wakes. Yet quits not Nature's bounds. He knows to keep Each due decorum ; now the heart he shakes And now with well-urg'd sense th' enlightened judgment takes. But there is certainly a good deal of friendly prejudice here ; the actor whose supremacy had been seriously threatened by Delane and by Macklin in succession was hardly such a giant.
THE ACTOR 45 resumed the evolution of this cold and bombastic style in tragedy in his famous Prologue for the opening of Drury Lane Theatre in : For years the power of tragedy declined : From bard to bard the frigid caution crept, Till declamation roar'd, while passion slept. The coldness of the old conventional system and the necessity of substituting for it a more natural diction and a more expressive panto- mime — those are questions which Garrick and his friend Macklin must have often discussed. For, in justice to the latter, it should not be forgotten that he was really the precursor of Garrick in the revolution about to be accom- plished.
In training pupils he counselled them to adopt on the stage a manner of speaking that approximated to that they employed in daily life. His own acting was forcible and lively, though somewhat too rugged ; and then, his incurable Irish brogue suggested a want of polish. It was he who, a year before Garrick's first appearance, had reinstated Shylock among the great parts of Shakespearean tragedy, for since it had been the custom to treat the Jew as an amusing character. It was he who coached his young friend in the r61e of Lear, and who emended by his criticisms Garrick's first attempts.
It was he who, later, played Macbeth in a Scotch costume more becoming to the part than the gold-laced uniform and three- cornered hat worn by Garrick and others. In fine, Macklin had the intelligence and the courage necessary in the innovator ; but he lacked the physical means and attractions to make the public welcome his ideas. Directly he appeared he amazed all by the whole-heartedness and impassioned force of his acting. His Richard III.
In the celebrated scene of the last act, where, after the procession of ghosts, the tyrant starts from his disordered slumber and attempts to reason down his fears, he was no longer an actor repeating a part, but a weak and miserable man passing through a crisis of terror and anguish. It was with a voice full of force and courage that he cried, " Give me another horse " ; and then, in a tone of extreme distress, he added, " Bind up my wounds " ; next, falling on his knees, he groaned forth in abject despair, "Have mercy, Jesu!
Well might The Daily Post, referring to this first per- formance of a " gentleman who never appeared before on any stage" declare that Us reception was the most extraordinary and great that was ever known on such an occasion. In depicting moments of mental anguish, dis- order, and passion he was unequalled. The simplicity of his saying, ' Be these tears wet? His pre- paration for it was extremely affecting ; his throw- ing away his crutch, kneeling on one knee, clasping his hands together and lifting his eyes towards heaven, presented a picture worthy the pencil of a Raphael.
Lastly, we will quote another contemporary description which, whilst insisting on the principal characteristics of Garrick's style, reveals incident- ally the defects of those actors whom he had found in possession of the stage : " His voice is clear and piercing, perfectly sweet and harmonious, without monotony, drawling, or affectation;.
He is not less happy in his mien and gait, in which he is neither strutting nor mincing, neither stiff nor ' O'Keefe, Recollections , vol. When three or four are on the stage with him he is attentive to whatever is spoke, and never drops his character when he has finished a speech, by either looking contemptibly [sic] on an inferior performer, unnecessarily spitting, or suffering his eyes to wander through the whole circle of spectators.
His action corresponds with the voice, and both with the character he is to play ; it is never superfluous, awkward, or too frequently repeated, but graceful, decent and various. It must be remembered that that effect was produced by the authority of his pantomime, for in the salons of the eighteenth century the Parisians who understood spoken English were rare. In these extraordinary mimetic powers, associated, no doubt, with a superior intelligence, seems to have especially resided Garrick's ex- cellence as an actor. An examination of his portraits reveals how varied were his means of facial expression.
His eyebrows were clearly and firmly pencilled ; they stood fairly high above his eyes, allowing him to employ every note in the scale of the emotions, from the greatest astonishment to the most threat- ening anger; his nose was well-formed, the end was rather long and eminently mobile, so that its movements completely changed the expression of his physiognomy; the nostrils were delicate, capable of expanding with indignation or of narrowing in severity; the lips were finely cut and full of vivacity, ready to lengthen with gaiety, to droop in sadness, or to protrude with rage and resentment.
His eyes were extremely striking, full of fire and movement. When Mrs. It is related that when, one day, he turned towards a subordinate with the words : " There's blood upon thy face! It was no easy task to transfer to the canvas features so changeable. Garrick, as a model, threw painters into despair. Let us listen a moment to Northcote relating Sir Joshua Rey- nolds's experiences : " When the artist had worked on the face till he had drawn it very correctly, as he saw it at the time, Garrick caught an opportunity, whilst the painter was not looking at him, totally to change his countenance and expression, when the poor painter patiently worked on to alter the picture and make it like what he then saw ; and when Garrick perceived that it was thus altered, he seized another opportunity, and changed his countenance to a third character ; which, when the poor tantalized artist perceived he, in a great rage, threw down his pallet and pencils on the floor, saying he believed he was painting from the devil, and would do no more to the picture.
THE ACTOR 51 colours at Le Raincy in , he experienced the same difficulties : " Whilst the actor was heing painted, as his liveliness prevents him from re- maining quiet for one moment, he practised pass- ing, by imperceptible shades, from extreme joy to extreme sadness, and even to despair and horror.
He was perfectly built, somewhat on the small side, and carried himself nimbly and lightly ; all his movements were graceful, and full of the vivacity which animated his features ; in short, he had an airy sprightliness which one can hardly claim as characteristically English. Not even the most practised eye could discover the least imperfection apparent in him, neither in details nor in the whole, nor yet in his move- ments.
One feels light and at ease when one sees the strength and certainty of his movements, and how he appears present in every muscle of his body. The expression of his face is so clear and living that it com- municates itself to those who see him. The spectators are grave with him, frown when he frowns, smile when he smiles ; in his unrestrained good-humour and his laughing ways, when in an ' Gorrespondance littSraire, I" juillet, Barry comes into it, Sir, as a great Lord, swaggering about his love and talking so loud, that by G — , Sir, if we don't suppose the servants of the Capulet family almost dead with sleep, they must have come out and tossed the fellow in a blanket.
But how does Garrick act this? Why, Sir, sensible that the family of the Oapulets are at enmity with him and all his house, he comes in creeping upon his toes, whisper- ' Georg LicMenberg Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Gottingen , Vermischte Schriften Gottingen, , vol. If we do not attempt to retrace the portrait oi Garrick in our own words, it is because such a reconstitution seems unnecessary after our quotations from contemporary descriptions.
He had every requisite to fit him for every character ; his limbs were pKant, his features ductile and expressive, and his eye keen, quick, and obedient, versant to all occasions and places. His voice was har- monious, and could vibrate through all the modulations of sound ; could thunder in Passion, tremble in Fear, dissolve into the softness of Love, or melt into every mood of Pity and Distress. These liberal dowries of Nature were ornamented by the most refined acquisitions of Art : Music, Dancing, Painting, Fencing, Sculpture, gave him each their respective graces ; from them he borrowed his deportment, his ease, and his attitudes.
Every degree of Age — every stage, scene, and period of life, from the hot and youthful lover up to the lean and slipper'd Pantaloon — all were alike to him. At twenty-four he could put on all the weaknesses and wrinkles of the greatest age ; and at sixty he wore in his appearance and action all the agility of buxom and wanton youth. If he was angry, so was you ; if he was distress'd, so was you ; if he was terrified, so was you ; if he was merry, so was you ; if he was mad, so was you. He was an enchanter, and led you where he pleased. Whilst rendering sincere homage to his great merits, one reserve suggests itself to our judg- ment : was not his style of acting somewhat too emphatic at times?
On this point let us consult Lichtenberg once again and see if his enthusiasm has not noted details somewhat too prominent, patches somewhat too purple. This is how he describes Garrick in the ghost- scene of Hamlet: At Horatio's words, "Look, my lord, it comes! His features ex- ' This anecdote is reported, under the form of a conversation between Garrick and Macklin, by Henry Angelo in his Pic-nic ; reimpression Angelo adds that Garrick did not at all appreciate the last part of the comparison.
Is it necessary to rewrite the poet's meaning in letters so gigantic? If we pass to comedy parts, the same character- istics are at times in evidence. Let us quote a newspaper account of the first performance of Garrick's Miss m her Teens. The critic, after detailing the incidents which form the somewhat unsubstantial foundation of the plot, goes on to regret that the actor has thus set himself the difficult task of " diverting us with the trifling circumstances of a piece of black silk on his finger ; a cambrick handkerchief on his neck ; the posture in which he presents a pill-box ; the arming of a chair ; the advances to a duel ; the trip-on and jaunt-off the stage.
It is a pity that Mr. Garrick should impose the ridiculous task upon himself of diverting us in so unaccountable a manner. With this descrip- tion of Garrick in Hamlet may be compared that given by Fielding, Tom Jones, book xvi. There, sir, now! What say you now? Is he frightened now, or no? As much frightened as you think me, and, to be sure, nobody can help some fears ; I would not be in so bad a condition as what's-his-name, Squire Hamlet, is there, for all the world," etc.
Johnson, on the other hand, seems to have con- sidered that Garrick over-emphasized the Prince of Denmark's terror. When BosweU asked him, " Would you not, sir, start as Mr. Garrick does, if you saw a ghost? If I did, I should frighten the ghost. We repro- duce the italics and capitals of the original. THE ACTOR 65 Here, again, there is something of that senseless exaggeration of the futile which merges the comic in the ridiculous ; something perilously like the red nose, yellow whiskers, and swollen umhrella of the music-hall artist.
Lastly, we will consult a critic frankly un- favourable to Garrick, one of the comedians whose place he had taken in the favour of the public, but who, in spite — perhaps, because — of his hos- tility, is not lacking at times in keenness of perception and alertness of judgment : " Tho I have as quick a perception of the merits of this actor as his greatest admirers.
Methinks this slight short sentence requires not such a variety of action as minutely to describe the cat being clapp'd into the bottle, then being hung up, and the further painting of the man shooting at it. Observe the Golden Rule of not too much ; this Eiule every actor should pay regard to. Yet, on the opening of the scene, the actor, with folded arms, advances ahout three or four steps, then jumps and starts into an attitude of surprise : at what? Why, at the sight of a monument he went to look for.
And there he stands, till a clap from the audience relieves him from his post. Is not this forc'd? Is it not misplac'd? Is it not as improper as ranting loudly those threats to his servant which shou'd be deliver'd in an under voice, expressive of terror, but not mouth'd out loud enough to alarm the watch. These are thy triumphs! O Davy! Combining these latter observations with the more favourable criticisms first quoted, the reader will, perhaps, arrive at the conclusion that Garrick had, especially in the earlier half of his career, a certain tendency to strain the cord, to try and make the comic yet more laugh- able and the awful yet more terrible.
Pronounced at the Haymarket Theatre, January , and published Ass6zat et Tourneux, tome xi. It is to Garrick's credit that, in spite of the adulation, often uncritical, which attended his career, he learnt to correct his faults and to tone down his excesses. But this particular weakness is one that would pass unperceived hy those who could not appre- ciate the full value of the spoken word ; or rather, they would be grateful for so rich a visual trans- lation of the poet's meaning.
That is why Garrick's powerful pantomime formed, for those Frenchmen who met him at Paris, one of his greatest attractions and the principal proof of his superiority. They made no distinction between Garrick and Shakespeare. The actor was received as the dramatist's heir and representative, self -entrusted with the mission of defending his ancestor's glory. He will never forgive M. At Paris, in , he refused to meet abb6 le Blanc, because the latter, in his Lettres d'un Frangcm a Londres, had spoken disrespectfully of Garrick's adopted ancestor. The Shakespearean question was ever an apple of discord between him and his friend Morellet.
Then he would come at me like a madman, calling me French dog and pressing me with questions and vindications, in order to make me approve peculiarities which our taste cannot support. Garrick, where, in very ' Letter of April 19th, no year ; Boaden, vol. Vaines, Sept. Shakespeare revives! And first of all, it is an error to believe that, at the moment of Garrick's debut, Shakespeare's works were buried in oblivion.
At the time of Garrick's appearance Shakespeare's plays were, at any rate, acted quite as much in London as they are now, and the great, generally-known characters, such as Hamlet, Eichard III. Garrick, then, inaugurated no movement in favour of Shakespeare; rather did he profit by that already commenced. One must assuredly accord him praise for con- tinuing that movement and for restoring to the stage pieces that had not been played for years. Timon of Athens, which had not seen the footlights since the Restoration, was given at DruryLane in , but in a version which still contained no few verses foreign to the original.
Macbeth, considered since as a melodrama of which the first two acts were capable of pleasing by their animation, but the last three were dull and void of interest, became once more a tragedy of the highest class ; our actor-manager suppressed the addi- tions due to Dry den and D'Avenant, but he retained verses introduced from Middleton, and, with his own hand, added to his own part a speech in articulo mortis.
It is true that these pieces had not been seen for many ' Mantzius, op. In his hands the first became Katharine and FetrucMo, and figures under that title in the actor's Dramatic Works. The under-plot is en- tirely removed; we find Bianca already married to Hortensio, and thus the amusing scenes between the different suitors for her hand disappear. With them vanishes Petruchio's reason for demanding Kate in marriage. Thus simplified and reduced to classic unity, the play falls into three parts : Petruchio's courtship of the shrew ; the marriage, the hurried departure of the couple, and their arrival at the bridegroom's home ; the scenes much abridged in which Kate is brought to reason, and the tableau which shows us the scold reduced to meekness.
With characteristic clum- siness Garrick takes from Katharine a portion of her final speech on the duties of the model wife, and, by transferring it to the victorious husband, destroys all its veiled comic tone. Shakespeare's joyous farce finishes on a grave note suitable for a homily on the whole duty of woman. Needless to say that such vulgarly comic characters as the Athenian artisans found no place amid the trills and recitatives ; with them disappeared " the most lamentable comedy and most cruel death of Pyramus and Thisby.
Titania becomes amorous, for no reason whatever — but then, this is an opera — with a clown whom she finds sleeping in the forest. In a word, all the dreamy fancy and all the rich playfulness of the charming pastoral are Sup- pressed ; and in that lies the importance to the literary historian of Garrick's alterations of Shake- speare : they mark French influence at its high tide, just before the turn. The French mind, positive, realist, and intellectual, has never shown much sympathy for the visionary creations, so unlike anything in heaven or on earth, of our romantic imaginative poets.
Now Garrick's was a French mind, formed in what may be called a French century. But in the place of what he destroyed he set original productions from his own pen — songs, terrible in their triviality, their nudity unadorned save by strings of commonplaces. Thus : With mean disguise let others nature hide, And mimick virtue with the paint of art ; I scorn the cheat of reason's foolish pride, And boast the graceful weakness of my heart. The more I think, the more I feel my pain, And learn the more each heavenly charm to prize ; While fools, too light for passion, safe remain, And dull sensation keeps the stupid wise.
Or, Joy alone shall employ us. No griefs shall annoy us, No sighs the sad heart shall betray ; Let the vaulted roof ring, Let the full chorus sing, Blest Theseus and Hippolit-a. Dare we set in comparison with such verses some of the original lines discarded by Garrick? Weed wide enough to wrap a fairy in : And with the juice of this I'll streak her eyes, And make her full of hateful fantasies.
Por this production Garrick composed a Pro- logue, one of his weakest, in which he asked pardon for daring to put an English opera on the stage : An Op'ra too! Wrote in a Language which you understand! I dare not say who wrote it— I could tell ye, To soften matters, Signor Shakespearelli.
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Except for the remains of Shakespeare's poetry, the piece cannot fairly be declared guilty on the first count; and, as for the second, the play has been so cut about that little sense remains. But then, as Garrick remarks : " Even the best poetry would appear tedious when only supported by Eecitative. After this first attempt Garrick allowed The Tempest to slumber until ; then he turned it into another opera in the style of The Fairies, which the same composer.
Smith, fitted with music and in which the same tenor, Beard, played the principal part. It is true that these operas are not included, as are others of Shakespeare's pieces rearranged by him, in his Works ; but they are given as his in all contemporary lists of his writings — for example, in that placed by Kearsley at the head of his edition of the Poehcal Works, This editor affirms that, in compiling his list, he had the assistance of Garrick's friends ; and he adds that he is informed that it is perfectly accurate.
The latter phrase seems to suggest that he had submitted it to members of the actor's family, or to other competent judges. Moreover, the words used by Garrick in the Prologue to The Fairies " I confess the offence " point to him as author of the arrangement. All three of these operas were played at Drury Lane and published by Tonson ; of The Magician Garrick formally acknowledged the authorship. Several critics, especially Theo. Gibber, accused him, during his life of having cut up Shakespeare's pieces into operas ; Garrick never denied these accusations. In any case, the operas were performed at his theatre and under his direction.
Bandello, the Italian novelist, from whom Shakespeare has borrowed the subject of this play, has made Juliet to wake in the tomb before Romeo dies : this circumstance Shakespeare has omitted, not, perhaps, from judgment, but from reading the story in the French or English translation, both which have injudiciously left out this addition to the catastrophe. All allusion to Rosaline having been suppressed, Garrick is obliged to make cuts in the first two acts and to I Produced November 29t]i, , with Barry and Gibber in the principal parts.
It ran jfor nineteen nights ; the success seems to have encouraged Barry and Gibber to attempt rivalry with Garrick at Govent Garden in At this theatre they added a dirge and tuneral procession at the beginning of Act V. Garrick, who was acting his own version with Miss Bellamy, replied by a similar attraction. The piece is printed in his Works, vol. From an anonymous engraving of the period in tlie collection of A. Thus the actor reinforces the value of his own part, the manager makes his " show " more splendid and more attractive, and the shade of Shakespeare is, doubtless, enchanted at seeing his omissions repaired.
The changes in poetical form bear especially on two points : the romantic spirit and somewhat euphuistic fancy of this work of Shakespeare's youth are carefully eliminated. All " quibble " is removed ; for example, the second scene of Act I. Thanks to this fondness for curtailing, pruning, ' Act II. In the same way the charming exaggera- tion in which Juliet anticipates the weariness of the long hours which are to separate her from her lover, " I must hear from thee every day in the hour," is garrickized into " I must hear from thee every hour in the day"; and that is certainly more ordinary and easily understanded of the people.
But why, instead of the original reply assigned to Romeo — I will omit no opportunity That may convey my greetings to thee, why do we read in Garrick, " I will admit no opportunity? Secondly, all the rhymed portions of the play are reduced to prose, so that no inharmonious " jingle " may remain ; in other words, Garrick dared to unpoetize some of the finest passages, so as to produce a form of speech more closely assimilated to everyday conversation.
We append an example, taken from Act II. Here Friar Laurence's opening speech is cut down, but the rhymes are left, it being evidently considered more as a lyric than as a piece of dialogue. Light rubbing wear to cover, spine and page edges. Very minimal writing or notations in margins not affecting the text. Possible clean ex-library copy, with their stickers and or stamp s.
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