Brubaker, Rogers. Religion and nationalism: Four approaches. Nations and Nationalism — Public religions in the modern world. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Rethinking secularization: A global comparative perspective. The Hedgehog Review — Chaves, Mark, und David E. Regulation, pluralism, and religious market structure. Rationality and Society — Daiber, Karl-Fritz, und Thomas Luckmann. Dobbelaere, Karel. A multi-dimensional concept. London: Sage. Ebertz, Michael N. Das Charisma des Gekreuzigten. Zur Soziologie der Jesusbewegung. Erosion der Gnadenanstalt?
Zum Wandel der Sozialgestalt von Kirche. Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. Die Vielfalt der Moderne. Fox, Jonathan. A world survey of religion and the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Berlin: Berlin University Press. Institution — Organisation — Bewegung. Sozialformen der Religion im Wandel. Gill, Anthony. The political origins of religious liberty.
Glock, Charles Y. On the study of religious commitment. Religious Education — Soziologie der Kirchengemeinde. Stuttgart: Enke. Goldschmidt, Dietrich, und Joachim Matthes. Probleme der Religionssoziologie. Gorski, Philip S. Historicizing the secularization debate. American Sociological Review — The disciplinary revolution.
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Calvinism and the rise of the state in early modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In Frontiers of Sociology , Hrsg. Leiden: Brill. After secularization? Annual Review of Sociology — Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm. Religion in der modernen Kultur. Grim, Brian, und Roger Finke. International religion indexes: Government regulation, government favoritism and social regulation of religion.
Interdisciplinary Journal of Research and Religion — Grim, Brian J. The Price of Freedom Denied. Glauben und Wissen. Hahn, Alois. Zur Soziologie der Beichte und anderer Formen institutionalisierter Bekenntnisse: Selbstthematisierung und Zivilisationsprozess. Differenzierung, Zivilisationsprozess, Religion. Aspekte einer Theorie der Moderne. Friedhelm Neidhardt, M.
Dissecting the social. On the principles of analytical sociology. Heelas, Paul, und Linda Woodhead. The spiritual revolution. Why religion is giving way to spirituality. Oxford: Blackwell. Hennig, Anja. Moralpolitik und Religion. Hero, Markus. Pilger und Konvertiten. Religion in Bewegung. Zwischen traditionellem Volksglauben und modernen Erweckungsbewegungen. Huber, Stefan. Ein Blick in die Schweiz. In ReligionsMonitor , Hrsg. Bertelsmann Stiftung, — Inglehart, Ronald, und Pippa Norris. Rising tide. Gender equality and cultural change around the world.
Joas, Hans. Braucht der Mensch Religion? Freiburg: Herder. Eine neue Genealogie der Menschenrechte. Berlin: Suhrkamp. Kecskes, Robert, und Christof Wolf. Kepel, Gilles. Paris: Seuil. Kippenberg, Hans G. Gewalt als Gottesdienst. Religionskriege im Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Knoblauch, Hubert. Das Unsichtbare Zeitalter. Qualitative Religionsforschung: Religionsethnographie in der eigenen Gesellschaft. Die Kontingenz der Moderne. Wege in Europa, Asien und Amerika. Koenig, Matthias. Zur Auseinandersetzung mit Charles Taylor.
Krech, Volkhard. Georg Simmels Religionstheorie. Krech, Volkhard, und Hartmut Tyrell. Religionssoziologie um Kuru, Ahmet T. Secularism and state policies toward religion. The United States, France, and Turkey. Luckmann, Thomas. Neuere Schriften zur Religionssoziologie. Die unsichtbare Religion. Luhmann, Niklas. Die Organisierbarkeit von Religion und Kirchen. In Religion im Umbruch. Funktion der Religion. Die Religion der Gesellschaft. Lynch, Gordon. The sacred in the modern world.
A cultural sociological approach. Manow, Philip. Religion und Sozialstaat. Martin, David.
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Tongues of fire. The explosion of protestantism in Latin America. Marty, Martin E. Scott Appleby. Fundamentalisms observed. Matthes, Joachim. Dietrich Goldschmidt und Joachim Matthes, 65— Was ist anders an anderen Religionen? Anmerkungen zur zentristischen Organisation des religionssoziologischen Denkens. In Religion und Kultur. Bergmann, Alois Hahn und Thomas Luckmann, 16— McLeod, Hugh. Secularisation in Western Europe, - Houndmills, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
Minkenberg, Michael. Staat und Kirche in westlichen Demokratien. In Politik und Religion. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Sonderheft 33 , Hrsg. Michael Minkenberg und Ulrich Wilhems, — Baden-Baden: Nomos. Soziologie — Ethnologie — Philosophie, Hrsg. Tanja Bogusz und Heike Delitz, — Nassehi, Armin. Qualitative Ergebnisse des Religionsmonitors.
Norris, Pippa, und Ronald Inglehart. Sacred and secular. Religion and politics worldwide. Pickel, Gert. Platvoet, Jan G. The pragmatics of defining religion. Contexts, concepts and contests. Pollack, Detlef. Was ist Religion? Probleme der Definition. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Diese Missionare sollen sich auf die neue Kultur gut vorbereiten, z.
Sie werden als "cross-cultural workers" bezeichnet. Die Short-term Mission Kurzzeitmission zeichnet sich vor allem dadurch aus, dass sie zeitlich begrenzt ist. Es geht um wenige Wochen bis zu meist zwei Jahren, die man in einem fremden Land verbringt. MONROE BREWER During the s and '90s in the United States, due to the maturing of the Baby Boomer population, it has been observed that a polarization of sorts has developed, in which more missiologically conservative local churches have tended to take a missions-as-process approach, whereas more methodologically progressive local churches have tended to take a missions-as-project approach.
This apparent polarization may describe reality, but both approaches have obvious inherent strengths and limitations. The missions-as-project approach capitalizes on directing present Boomer energy into vision trips, vacations with a purpose, major designated projects and offerings, short-termers, and ministry teams. But this approach admittedly has no long-term track record or guarantee of success. The missions-as-process approach draws upon over years of Protestant missions history worldwide. But that approach has demonstrated a lack of flexibility, vision, strategic focus, entrepreneurial freedom, and networking capability.
Missions-as-process churches should not look with disdain on missions-as-project churches, which focus on vision trips, major projects, and short-termers. Nor should the missions-as-project churches be frustrated with the missions-as-process churches, which are concerned about church planting, strategies, track records, doctrinal statements, and long-term associations. The fact is, there is a strategy which I have used as a missions pastor in three local churches in over 28 years of ministry which synthesizes the strengths of both approaches.
This strategy makes the short-termer one who serves for one to two years the cornerstone of its "game plan," satisfying the missions-as-project crowd, while at the same time having as its most obvious long-term feature the placement of career workers those who serve for two to four terms in the most strategic overseas assignments, satisfying the missions-as-process crowd. This strategy can work for any kind of evangelical church, whether it is new or old, large or small, experienced or inexperienced, urban, suburban, or rural.
Let me explain, step by step, how I have implemented this strategy in my own church. Here are the ten steps you should follow:. In conclusion, in this paradigm synthesis, the short-term missionary, the cornerstone-feature of the missions-as-project approach, becomes the single greatest driving force in mobilizing the local church for world missions. At the same time, the short-termer stream becomes the single greatest conduit for flooding the world with field-tested, strategic thinking, and adequately supported long-term missionaries, the hallmark of the missions-as-process approach.
Don't allow your church to become artificially polarized by one valid approach alone. Use them both in tandem, minimizing the limitations of both by maximizing the strengths of both. That way your church can stay missiologically conservative and still be methodologically progressive. The future of the role of American churches in the cause of world missions in the 21st century is bright if short-termers are viewed with these bifocal lenses. He has taught at 11 Bible colleges and seminaries, traveled to over countries and has a doctorate in missiology and adult education.
Ist das Ziel einer dauerhaften christlichen Einrichtung erreicht, kann man allerdings nicht mehr von nonresidential mission sprechen. Our chains do now confine us In darkness and in doubt, No light to shine upon us, No hand to bring us out. Come over and help us! Come over and help us today. We hear that one called Jesus Can save us from our sin; We want to hear his footsteps, We want to let Him in.
Bush's campaign theme of empowering private relief groups to help the poor.
If adopted by the administration and Congress, Mr. Helms's plan would mark the most decisive shift in 40 years in how America helps the world's downtrodden. Helms said in a speech at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative research group. Colin L. Powell, Mr. Bush's choice for secretary of state, met with Mr. Helms earlier this week, and while General Powell expressed support for increasing foreign aid, an aide said he was not briefed on details of the senator's proposal.
A spokesman for General Powell, F. William Smullen, was noncommittal tonight: "We've now seen the senator's comments, and we welcome his ideas and his contribution to the debate. We obviously need to study a variety of different issues. In his wide-ranging speech, Mr. Helms called on Mr. The plan envisions replacing the aid agency and its 7, employees with a smaller, streamlined International Development Foundation with lower expenses.
The secretary of state as well as relief groups would oversee the foundation's activities, Mr. Helms's aides said, to provide oversight and coordination with American foreign policy goals. Helms said, "I will be willing to take the lead in the Senate in supporting increased U. Relief groups voiced mixed reactions to the proposal, from cautious skepticism to stunned disbelief to enthusiastic support. Helms has long been a searing critic of American foreign aid, complaining, as he did today, that government-organized assistance has only "lined the pockets of corrupt dictators, while funding the salaries of a growing, bloated bureaucracy.
But in the past several months, Mr.
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Helms has shown a new zeal for helping the world's poor, particularly in Africa. The year-old senator has attributed his conversion of sorts to conversations with the Rev. Franklin Graham — the son of the Rev. David Beckmann, president of Bread for the World, the nation's largest grass-roots anti-hunger lobbying group. Wilkinson, "but at this point, the International Development Foundation is a very sketchy idea.
Helms is resurrecting a proposal he made five years ago that ran into opposition and died in committee. Other lawmakers have proposed alternatives. Since President Clinton took office, it has slashed its staff to 7, people from 10, World Vision Abb. World Vision International is a Christian relief and development organisation working for the well being of all people, especially children. Through emergency relief, education, health care, economic development and promotion of justice, World Vision helps communities help themselves.
Established in to care for orphans in Asia, World Vision has grown to embrace the larger issues of community development and advocacy for the poor in its mission to help children and their families build sustainable futures. Working on six continents, World Vision is one of the largest Christian relief and development organisations in the world. The heart of World Vision's work is in helping communities build stronger and healthier relationships. The absence of such relationships impoverishes communities. World Vision focuses on children because they are the best indicator of a community's social health.
When children are fed, sheltered, schooled, protected, valued, and loved a community thrives. Our vision for every child, life in all its fullness; Our prayer for every heart, the will to make it so. World Vision is an international partnership of Christians whose mission is to follow our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ in working with the poor and oppressed to promote human transformation, seek justice and bear witness to the good news of the Kingdom of God. The World Vision Partnership shares a common understanding bound together by six core values. These core values are the fundamental and guiding principles that determine World Vision's actions.
The core values are our aim, a challenge that we seek to live and work to. In Jesus the love, mercy and grace of God are made known to us and all people. We seek to follow Jesus - in his identification with the poor, the powerless, the afflicted, the oppressed, and the marginalised; in his special concern for children; in his respect for the dignity bestowed equally on women and men; in his challenge to unjust attitudes and systems; in his call to share resources with each other; in his love for all people without discrimination or conditions; in his offer of new life through faith in him.
We maintain our Christian identity while being sensitive to the diverse contexts in which we express that identity. We are called to serve the neediest people of the earth; to relieve their suffering and to promote the transformation of their wellbeing. We stand in solidarity in a common search for justice. We seek to understand the situation of the poor and work alongside them.
We seek to facilitate an engagement between the poor and the affluent that opens both to transformation. We respect the poor as active participants, not passive recipients, in this relationship. They are people from whom others may learn and receive, as well as give. The need for transformation is common to all. Together we share a quest for justice, peace, reconciliation, and healing in a broken world. We regard all people as created and loved by God.
We give priority to people before money, structure, systems, and other institutional machinery. We act in ways tht respect dignity, uniqueness, and intrinsic worth of every person - the poor, the donors, our staff and their families, boards, and volunteers. We celebrate the richness of diversity in human personality, culture and contribution. We practice a participative, open, enabling style in working relationships. We encourage the professional, personal, and spiritual development of our staff.
The resources at our disposal are not our own. They are a trust from God through donors on behalf of the poor. We speak and act honestly. We are open and factual in our dealings with donors, project communities, governments and the public at large. We demand of ourselves high standards of professional competence and financial accountability. We are stewards of God's creation. We care for the earth and act in ways that will restore and protect the environment. We ensure that our development activities are ecologically sound.
We are partners with the poor and with donors in a shared ministry. We are members of an international World Vision partnership that transcends legal, structural, and cultural boundaries. We pursue relationships with all churches and desire mutual participation in ministry. We maintain a cooperative stance and a spirit of openness towards other humanitarian organisations. We are responsive to life-threatening emergencies where our involvement is needed and appropriate. We are willing to take intelligent risks and act quickly. We do this from a foundation of experience and sensitivity to what the situation requires.
We also recognise that even in the midst of crisis the destitute have a contribution to make. We are responsive in a different sense where deep seated and often complex economic and social deprivation calls for sustainable, long-term development. World Vision functions as a partnership of interdependent national offices, overseen by their own boards or advisory councils. A common mission statement and shared core values bind the Partnership. By signing the Covenant of Partnership, each partner agrees to abide by common policies and standards.
Introduction in: Lay Prophets in Lutheran Europe (<i>c.</i> –)
Partners hold each other accountable through an ongoing system of peer review. Each national office, regardless of how big its programmes are, enjoys equal voice in Partnership governance, erasing the usual distinctions between the developed and developing world. An international board of directors oversees the World Vision Partnership. The full board, which meets twice a year, appoints the Partnership's senior officers, approves strategic plans and budgets, and determines international policy.
The chairperson of the international board is Denis St. Amour of Canada. The international president and chief executive officer is Dr. Dean R. There are 25 international board members, from 19 countries. As much as possible, operational decisions are made at the local or national level. National directors approve more than 90 percent of all projects within previously approved budgets. National boards, comprised of business, church, and social service leaders exercise responsibility for governance at the national level.
Almost 80 percent of World Vision's funding comes from private sources, including individuals, corporations and foundations. The remainder comes from governments and multilateral agencies. Aside from cash contributions, World Vision accepts gifts-in-kind, typically food commodities, medicine, and clothing donated through corporations or government agencies.
Approximately half of World Vision's programmes are funded through child sponsorship. Individuals, families, churches and groups are linked with specific children or specific community projects in their own country or abroad. Sponsors pledge a certain amount each month to the support of these children or projects. Child sponsorship seeks to address the root causes of poverty and suffering so a child can enjoy as full a life as possible. Refrain The Christian Flag! Refrain Onward, onward, army of the Lord!
Refrain See! Refrain O children of the free! Refrain We are a missionary band, Missionary band, missionary band; We are a missionary band, Doing all we can. Refrain So we want to send them teachers, Who will teach them how to pray, To the dear and loving Savior, Who will wash their sins away. Refrain Cheerfully we give our pennies, And we like to give and plan, For we are young missionaries, Doing all the good we can.
A primary scriptural impetus for the global missionary enterprise is the Great Commission statement crowning the First Gospel: "go and make disciples of all nations. I am with you to the very end of the age" Matt. Jesus makes it clear that the urgent emphasis of mission must not be simply to "disciple" the world, but to continue to do so until the culmination of the end times events. Relatedly, the Savior had already spoken to the heart of the issue in the Olivet Discourse, Jesus' sermon on the end of the age.
Assurance that the global evangelistic task will be completed can be drawn from Matthew "And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come. Nor are these the only key passages that relate mission to the end times.
For example, in Acts the apostle Peter relates the phenomena going on around him on the Day of Pentecost to "the last days," citing Joel , which is there linked to the "day of the Lord" Acts , a great theme of Old Testament eschatology. These references added urgency to Peter's appeal to his hearers: Call on the name of the Lord and be saved v.
This passage also reveals the balancing perspective that "the last days" actually began in earnest with the inbreaking of the new age of the Spirit at Pentecost. This understanding is shared by the description of Christ being revealed in "these last days" in Hebrews Relatedly, Paul speaks of ungodly behavior characterizing "later times," which seems to include his own day 1 Tim. On the other hand, Paul also looks ahead to absolutely "terrible times in the last days" 2 Tim.
Of that latter-day period, Peter reminds his readers that the Lord wants "everyone to come to repentance" 2 Peter , urging a blameless lifestyle that will be a crucial aspect of attracting unbelievers to salvation w. Unfortunately, to this point, evangelicals have not sufficiently probed the Book of Revelation for specifics with regard to the completion of the Great Commission. Recently, however, R. Bauck-ham's programmatic discussion of the "conversion of the nations" in regard to the Apocalypse has served to stimulate fresh discussion in this area. For example, it is quite likely that "a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language" Rev.
This vast throng from "all the nations" Matt. Also, the references to "the eternal gospel to proclaim to those who live on the earth, to every nation, tribe, language and people" Rev. That understanding becomes even more likely when one sees that this use of "gospel" in is its lone inclusion in the Book of Revelation. Further, the two-sided harvest of Revelation reflects strikingly similar imagery and terminology to Christ's parable of the wheat and the weeds Matt. Since it speaks of the judgment at the "end of the age" w.
So, if nothing else, recent study of the Book of Revelation has located several passages that seem to detail the completion of the Great Commission in the end times. It remains for further exegetical and theological study to clarify important details that will inform the theory and practice of the evangelical missionary enterprise in the crucial time ahead. With the new millennium, there is great curiosity about the possible arrival of the "end times.
Since there is still much uncertainty attached to the specific impact of these efforts with respect to God's plan and timing, encouragement should be drawn from joyfully remembering the promise of the risen Lord, in the context of the carrying out of the Great Commission: "I am with you always, to the very end of the age" Matt.
On the other hand, God's sovereignty must never be an excuse for irresponsibility or complacency. Employing imagery with overtones of the end times, the apostle Paul laid out the practical urgency of "understanding the present time. The hour has come for you to wake up from your slumber, because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. The night is nearly over; the day is almost here" Rom. Boyd Luter. When considering missions, it is usually not the "Great Commandment" Mark par.
Luke but the "Great Commission" Matt. Arguably, however, the Great Commandment provides a crucial foundation for the Great Commission, and a unilateral emphasis on the latter creates an imbalance that may render the church's mission ineffective. We will first discuss the scriptural foundation for the Great Commandment and subsequently deal with its contemporary relevance for mission.
Scriptural Foundation. The Great Commandment, according to Jesus, is the Old Testament command to love God with all of one's heart, soul, mind, and strength Deut. To call this commandment the Great Commandment is to follow Matthew's terminology Matt. In Luke, the lawyer's question is, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? The question of what constituted the heart of the Law was an issue widely discussed in rabbinic circles in Jesus' day.
Jesus' emphatic statement, only found in Matthew, that the entire Law and the Prophets depend on the Great Commandment, is therefore of utmost significance Matt. Unlike the Decalogue, which is mostly given in the form of prohibitions, Jesus states this injunction in a positive way cf. By expressing the commandment in an absolute and categorical rather than a relative and limited fashion, Jesus stresses the priority of the inward disposition over the outward action.
In keeping with Old Testament prophetic tradition, Jesus requires heart religion, not merely formalistic legalism. At the same time, it is not his desire to use this commandment to relegate every other obligation of the believer to the point of irrelevance.
Since Matthew presents disci-pleship as the way of righteousness cf. Moreover, the latter entails, not mere Evangelism in modern parlance, where the term usually refers merely to the bringing of a person to the point of conversion, but the grounding of Christian converts in the way of righteousness, including the observance of the Great Commandment and, ultimately, once again the Great Commission! Finally, the concept of righteousness in Matthew, while possessing a spiritual core, is not limited to the religious domain but also has social and economic dimensions.
In these ways Matthew lays a crucial foundation for the understanding of the relationship between the Great Commandment and the Great Commission in contemporary discussion. Contemporary Relevance for Mission. Historically, Anglo-Saxon Protestant missionary thought has emphasized the Great Commission, while the latter task never occupied an equally central position among Christians on the European Continent. The issue of the relationship between the Great Commission and the Great Commandment caused considerable discussion at the Lausanne Congress on World Evangelism in While in the final conference document evangelism was named as the primary mission of the church, this drew the criticism of a significant number of participants, including John Stott, R.
Sider, and others. This conference identified three kinds of relationships between Evangelism and Social Responsibility: 1 social responsibility as a consequence of evangelism; 2 social action as a bridge to evangelism; and 3 social concern as a partner of evangelism. The delegates advocated a holistic approach to mission, since "[s]eldom if ever should we have to choose between satisfying physical hunger and spiritual hunger, or between healing bodies or saving souls, since an authentic love for our neighbor will lead us to serve him or her as a whole person" see Holistic Mission.
The key questions addressed at the consultation were the following: What is mission? How broad is salvation in Scripture? What is the relationship between the church and the kingdom? What is the church's mandate for social justice? Sider and J. Packer, in contrast to the World Council of Churches WCC at its Bangkok Conference , argued for a narrow use of salvation language, restricting salvation "to the sphere of conscious confession of faith in Christ. Johnston, D. McGavran, P. Wagner, P. Beyerhaus, K.
Bockmiihl, and H. Lindsell joined in affirming this position against those who sought to define salvation more broadly. This latter group contended that salvation has not only personal but also social and cosmic dimensions, so that socioeconomic improvements should be described as an aspect of salvation, pointing also to Luke cf. It was further argued that the lordship of Christ extends over all demonic powers of evil that "possess persons, pervade structures, societies, and the created order. On the one hand, it cautions against a reductionistic focus on people merely as "souls" that need to be saved, so that the church's task should not be conceived in merely "religious" terms.
On the other hand, Scripture does affirm the primacy of a person's spiritual dimension, so that the effort of leading unbelievers to a Christian conversion rightly belongs at the heart of the church's mission. As noted, read in the context of Matthew's entire Gospel, the fulfillment of the Great Commission entails a "commitment to both the King and his kingdom, to both righteousness and justice" Bosch , while the making of disciples also involves teaching them to obey Jesus' teachings which include loving God and one's neighbor.
Hence love for God and others ought to be the driving motivation for mission see Motive, Motivation , since, in love, God sent his Son; in love, Jesus gave his life for others; and by our love, the world will know that we are his disciples. The term "Great Commission" is commonly assigned to Christ's command to his disciples as found in Matthew , Mark , Luke , John , and Acts The prominence accorded to the Great Commission in the past two hundred years is not apparent in previous church history.
The early church made remarkable progress in spreading the faith throughout the Mediterranean world by virtue of the witness of dispersed Christians and the missionary journeys of the apostle Paul and others. However, there is no clear indication in the Book of Acts that this effort was motivated by explicit appeals to the Great Commission. Rather, after Pentecost the Holy Spirit both motivated and orchestrated the missionary effort in accordance with that Commission. Similarly, throughout the early centuries when both the Eastern and especially Western branches of the church were expanding significantly, the Great Commission as such does not appear to have been a decisive motivating or defining factor.
In Reformation times concerns and controversies relating to the Great Commission had to do with its applicability. The Reformers generally taught that the Great Commission was entrusted to the apostles and that the apostles fulfilled it by going to the ends of their known world. This is not to say that they had no missionary vision. Hadrian Saravia and Justinian von Welz found reason enough to write treatises in which they urged Christians to recognize their responsibility to obey the Great Commission and evangelize the world.
Nevertheless, it remained for William Carey to make one of the most compelling cases for the applicability of the Great Commission to all believers. The first section of his treatise An Inquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens published in made a concerted argument that individual Christians should join together in an effort to take the gospel to the Heathen" at that time the common designation for the unevangelized in obedience to the Great Commission.
Some historians have concluded that An Inquiry rivals Luther's Ninety-five Theses in terms of its influence on church history. By the middle of the nineteenth century a consensus on the applicability of the Great Commission had emerged but this consensus paved the way for differences as to its application, particularly in America.
Not everyone agreed with the interpretation and approach of A. Pierson and others who, in the s ands, pressed the completion of world evangelization by the year "in obedience to the Great Commission. In other words, it is not so much an exterior law that sits in judgment upon the missionary activities of the church, but an inner principle of church faith and life allowing for freedom in the way churches and missions interpret and carry it out.
Subsequent history has revealed how diverse and divisive such interpretations can be. The twentieth century gave rise to a number of significant points of departure in understanding. First, upon a review of history and the biblical text, some e. This led to a corresponding neglect of the missionary role of the Holy Spirit and the missionary thrust of the whole of biblical revelation. Second, perhaps responding to the emphasis on the social task of the church in the WCC and especially at the General Assembly in Uppsala, some evangelicals e.
Their revised position is that the statement in John "As the Father has sent me, so send I you" takes priority and makes the Lord Jesus' earthly ministry as outlined in Luke , 19 a model for modern mission. This interpretation opens the way for sociopolitical action as an integral part of biblical mission. Third, many Pentecostals and charismatics have given a certain priority to the Markan version of the Great Commission with its emphasis on the "signs following" conversion and faith—casting out demons, speaking in new tongues, handling snakes, drinking poisonous liquids without hurt, and healing the sick Mark This approach is generally dependent upon a consideration of the manuscript evidence relating to the shorter and longer endings of Mark's Gospel.
Fourth, some exegetes e. Rather, the main verb and imperative is "make disciples. In descending order of importance the verbs are "make disciples," "teach," "baptize, and "go. Fifth, Donald McGavran held that there is a clear distinction between disciple-making and teaching in fulfilling the Great Commission. The former has to do with people of a culture turning from their old ways, old gods, and old holy books or myths to the missionary's God, the Bible, and a new way of living. The latter has to do with "perfecting" as many as will take instruction and follow the "new way" more closely.
In obeying the Great Commission, "discipling" new peoples should never be discontinued in an effort to "perfect" a few. Though comparatively few agreed with McGavran early on, in recent years there has been a somewhat wider acceptance of certain aspects of his thesis. Originally Donald McGavran identified endogamy as a primary characteristic of a "people group" but subsequently other characteristics such as a common worldview, religion, ethnicity, language, social order, and self-identification have been emphasized.
This understanding lends itself to a program of world evangelization whereby people groups are identified and "reached" by planting viable, New Testament churches that become the primary means of evangelizing the group socially to the fringes and temporally into the future. Seventh, in recent years a growing number of missi-ologists e. To many missions people this has seemed altogether too encompassing and demanding. They have preferred to communicate basic truths about human spiritual need and the way in which the Lord Jesus has met that need by means of his death and resurrection.
In a way the tension between these two approaches reflects a classic missions controversy as to whether missionaries should first communicate truths about the nature of God and his requirements as revealed in the whole of Scripture or are better advised to begin with the New Testament account of Jesus' teaching and ministry. What is distinctive about the recent emphasis, however, is that its proponents usually link "all I [Christ] have commanded" in Matthew with John and a chronological teaching of the Bible as redemptive history. It is an international movement committed to encouraging Christians and churches everywhere to pray, study, plan, and work together for the evangelization of the world.
The congress in Lausanne was called by American evangelist Billy Graham. Some 2, Christian leaders from nations, representing a wide cross-section of denominational affiliations, attended the congress. The congress produced an influential document, "The Lausanne Covenant," and authorized the Lausanne Continuation Committee to continue the work begun at the congress. This committee became the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization.
LCWE believes that: cooperation and sharing are better than competition; the whole gospel includes demonstration by deeds as well as proclamation by words; biblical theology and mission strategy must be consistent; its own neutrality creates space for all evangelicals to work together, regardless of their church or faith tradition.
Gemeinden in evangelistischer Partnerschaft Wir freuen uns, dass ein neues Zeitalter der Mission angebrochen ist. Wir haben kein Recht, die Mission vor dem Ende der Zeiten abzubrechen. Deshalb widerstehen wir dem stolzen und selbstsicheren Traum, dass die Menschheit jemals Utopia auf Erden bauen kann.
Work done from the first contact of an unreached area or population until a viable and indigenous local church is established. Frontier mission, a more recently coined term see Winter , describes pioneer work in which the missionary crosses significant cultural boundaries. The types of activities done as part of pioneering work include such things as Evangelism and Church Planting, Literacy and Translation, Relief and Development, and even establishing institutions e.
Such activities may be the full-time occupation of the missionary, or may be ancillary to some type of professional occupation see Tent-Making Mission. In situations where countries grant missionary visas, missionaries are free to preach the gospel openly as their full-time job. While this was more generally the case in recent centuries especially when Western missionaries worked under the protection of colonial empires , political autonomy and religious attitudes have today closed the doors of many nations to the traditional full-time pioneer missionary.
Therefore, many involved in pioneer work today, especially in Creative Access Countries, can only attain residency as students, researchers, or professionals. When local residency is not possible, a base may be established outside the target country or culture from which periodic trips into the target area as a tourist are made to establish contacts or evangelize.
Since the goal of pioneer mission work is to plant an Indigenous Church, it must always include some form of evangelism. This evangelism, especially in sensitive areas, may be limited to small-scale or even covert work. Once people within the target area have come to Christ, pioneer missionaries need specific skills to gather them together in small fellowships and help them grow toward becoming a church. In prior centuries a team was sometimes necessary simply to ensure survival, as missionaries came to harsh environments without the necessary survival skills or resistance to disease already possessed by the indigenous population.
Further, a team approach makes it less imperative that any single individual possess each of the multiple gifts needed for church planting. It also provides a place of encouragement when the work is slow to develop. The trend in contemporary evangelical missions discussion of pioneer work has been a switch from a focus on geo-political boundaries to ethnolinguistic ones see Peoples, People Groups in conceptualizing the church-planting task of missions. It is estimated today that there are some 12, ethnolinguistic people groups, and that some 2, of them have no viable witness or church and are therefore in need of pioneering mission work.
Because frontier missions are focused on crossing significant cultural barriers to plant churches, it is a subset of pioneer mission work, which does not always involve the crossing of significant cultural barriers. The concept of pioneer mission work cannot be limited to settings where there has never been a gospel witness. It also includes evangelism in areas where there once was such a witness that is no longer viable. For example, secularized, post-Christian urban areas where the gospel is no longer proclaimed need missionaries with a pioneering outlook and commitment, and this should not be overlooked in considering the scope of pioneer mission work.
Nearly 4 billion people live here, including 90 percent of the world's poorest of the poor. It is estimated that 1. Illiteracy is widespread. Terrorist organizations and child prostitution run rampant in many of these nations. Horrific abuse of women and children remains unchecked. Children as young as 18 months old are trained to be Jihad soldiers. By all means, get involved!
Effective - We seek to leverage and maximize the effectiveness of other Kingdom resources by helping identify and reduce duplication of effort between ministries through information sharing. Comprehensive - Our emphasis is on comprehensiveness, to see that the Church is initially established in all the world's ethnic people groups. Neutral - We are a neutral, low profile ministry, serving the global missions community. Grassroots - We support grass-roots initiatives, seeking involvement with those laborers actually doing the work.
Continual updating is most accurately done by local and national researchers. Openhanded - We provide all data and services at no charge, making it possible for individuals and agencies in all parts of the world to have access. Recently God has been awakening the church to the need for less talk about prayer and more actual prayer. Mission and denominational agencies have appointed full-time prayer coordinators whose sole job is to pray and organize prayer.
Prayer and praise rallies have been held in urban centers around the world. The practice of walking through a target area and praying as prompted by the Spirit known as prayer-walking is being developed. More controversially, some advocate the engagement of Territorial Spirits in what has been called strategic-level warfare prayer as a new key to world evangelization. As signs of greater emphasis on prayer, all these efforts are welcomed in the missionary work of the church.
At the same time, they must be evaluated not simply on the basis of reported effectiveness, but on fidelity to the scriptural picture of the prayer life of the church. True prayer begins with God. It is the Lord who invited his disciples to pray Matt. It is also a command of God that people pray continually 1 Thess. Prayer is the primary means that God uses to accomplish his work. God places prayer burdens on the hearts of his people in order to prompt prayer, through which he works. Historian J. Edwin Orr, after decades of researching revivals around the world, concluded that they both began and were sustained in movements of prayer.
The missionary's prayer is not limited to the revival itself; Jesus commanded us to pray for the very laborers to work the fields that were ripe for harvest Matt. Every individual Christian and every local church lives under the command to be devoted to prayer Col. As missionaries pray to the Lord of the harvest, we open ourselves to any at-titudinal or behavioral adjustment that God wants us to make. Confessing sin is one important aspect of prayer Ps. Our humility before God underscores that the purpose of prayer is not ultimately to achieve our agenda but the accomplishment of God's purposes in a way that honors his name James His ultimate purpose is the gathering of those who worship him at least in part in response to the missionary prayers and through the missionary efforts of his church.
Jesus' life was characterized by prayer. He prayed before and after the significant events in his life. He prayed when he was overwhelmed with the needs of people. He prayed when his life was unusually busy. His prayer aimed toward the Father's glory John , 5 , emphasized in the honoring of God's name as the first petition of the Lord's Prayer Matt. All of mission is to be driven by this supreme goal. Characteristics of Prayer.
Any activity that is stamped with God's full approval is to be motivated by love 1 Cor. This will certainly include following Jesus' example by submitting our will to God's will Matt. It also involves imitating his fervency in prayer, and continually dealing with the anger and bitterness in our life and replacing it with forgiveness.
This was taught by Christ in his instruction and by his example. It is for this reason that true prayer extends even to our enemies Matt. This type of loving prayer is foundational to the mission of the church, for through it our enemies may be won to Christ. Of particular importance for the missionary's personal prayer life is the fact that prayer was never intended to be a mechanical discipline. It is an expression of an abiding relationship and of a life of communion with God undergirded by a heart of faith. This faith is placed in the revealed character of God, whose omniscience Matt. Prayer is to be continual 1 Thess.
The trials the missionary faces are not to hinder prayer life but to be used of God to deepen it Acts Prayer and missions are inextricably intertwined in the Book of Acts. Prayer preceded the Spirit setting aside Paul and Barnabas as missionary candidates and the missionary journeys themselves. Elders in newly established churches were prayed for and committed to God The missionary trial of saying good-bye to loved ones is aided by committing them to the care of I God in prayer Dynamics of Prayer. Missionaries and mission agencies have emphasized prayer throughout church history.
At the same time, however, there is always a temptation to talk about prayer and state that it is important but not to actually pray. Mission agencies can fall into the trap of planning, organizing, leading, and then remembering to pray. Such prayer is really only asking God's blessing on our human efforts rather than seeking to align our organizational identity and plans with his ongoing work in the world and his call in our lives. On the personal level, God aids the missionary in sustaining our prayer life through the crises we face. True prayer is exemplified by an attitude of helplessness and faith.
God uses Culture Shock, Language Learning difficulties, relational Conflicts, Spiritual Warfare, lack of Receptivity, and seemingly insurmountable obstacles to draw us to himself in prayer. He also has given us the Holy Spirit to motivate, guide, and empower our prayer. In times of weakness the Holy Spirit prays for us Rom. God ordained that our prayer be persevering to accomplish his sovereign work Luke ; I God uses persevering prayer to purify his church, prepare it for his answers, develop the lives of his people, defeat spiritual enemies, and give to his church the answer—intimacy with himself.
This is especially important for missionaries working where the response to the gospel is limited. One of the root causes of the continuing poverty is the presence of unexploded bombs from the Indochina war The presence of these impedes the utilization of agricultural land. A typical experience: At the beginning of planting season, 18 year old Miss Chanthaly's hoe hit a bomb.
The explosion burned her body, permanently blinding her and killed her sister who was working at her side. Prayer points: Pray against the sale of the girl child to be "married to the gods" and as a temple prostitute made available to the men who frequent the temples. Pray against killing girls babies, child marriages, Dowry tortures and deaths.
Prayer points: Pray for courage and boldness for the UAE believers at home and abroad to stay in UAE and witness through their lives the meaning and purpose JESUS CHRIST can bring Pray that the women wake up from their lethargy and the men and teens from their wild seeking of pleasure to see that they are living empty lives Pray for protection of the girls and women who are trafficked and become domestic slaves and sexually exploited Almighty GOD, we lift up this financially rich nation up to YOU.
Missionary enterprises require adequate financial underwriting. Missions attached to mainline denominations may use special offerings Southern Baptists or assessments per church member Presbyterian Church [U. The missionary may have little to do in this process or may have only a catalytic role Christian and Missionary Alliance speaking at district missions conferences. For a growing number of evangelical denominational missions Evangelical Free and for all independent societies AIM, SIM , fund raising is a task shared by the agency and the individual missionary.
Churches may partner with a mission agency to help in underwriting the support of individuals, mission-run institutions, and special projects. These funds may Overseas Missionary Fellowship or may not The Evangelical Alliance Mission be pooled by the agency to underwrite the general needs of the mission.
The mission may provide significant help, training, and guidance for those raising funds, but many agencies rely on the individual to follow up contacts and raise one's own support. The administrative cost of fund raising varies a great deal. In some cases there is practically no overhead because of volunteers in the home office World Prayer League ; in other cases it is a fixed percentage of all income e. Missions with a higher cost may often have greater benefits for their missionaries than do those with little or no administrative costs. They may be defined as cross-cultural workers with a secular identity called to make disciples within "closed" countries.
This understanding is more exclusive than other definitions. They are "cross-cultural workers," not mono-cultural workers. Christian witnessing to people of the same cultural background is the duty of all believers, and not to be categorized as something extraordinary. Finally, tent-makers as defined here serve "within closed countries" see Creative Access Countries. There are two main areas of dispute among those favoring the tent-making strategy.
First, the matter of tent-makers serving "within closed countries. It is imperative that tent-makers receive special training with a focus on a special people group. Reaching those behind closed doors stipulates special preparation. Learning the language and culture of the people requires time and discipline. The success of their ministry depends on it.
Their service as tent-makers may be prolonged rather than shortlived. Obviously tent-making is applicable in "open" countries. Second is the issue of support methods. We should not make this an issue to divide those who are advocates of the tent-making strategy. The tent-makers must be 1 physically, emotionally, and spiritually self-reliant; 2 adaptable; 3 biblically literate; 4 alert to the emerging mission context; 5 trained in meeting needs vital to the people group they seek to penetrate; 6 trained in long-term and low-profile evangelistic skills; 7 equipped with broad new strategic thinking; and 8 prepared with a special strategy for responding to opportunities presented by need.
How does one go about finding a tent-making job across cultures? One must be creative and persistent in job hunting like anyone else. One may look for international employment on the Internet. One may inquire regarding job availability through one's professional association or examine the job listing in a professional journal. Possibilities abound in high-tech fields. Foreign embassies are worth checking. Potential tent-makers may latch on to government or intergovernmental assignments.
They may go to work with humanitarian relief and development organizations. One can serve as a teacher in most fields and at all levels, as a medical doctor, as a nurse, as an engineer, as a farmer, and as a "professional" student. A term typically used to describe missionary service, normally involving cross-cultural immersion, that is intentionally designed to last from a few weeks to less than two years.
Short-term missions finds its roots in the Scriptures and, in a broad sense, can be understood through the words of Jesus in the Great Commandment Matt. In a sense Jesus establishes the guidelines for the early short-term mission experiences and demonstrates what is at the core of short-term missions in the sending out of the twelve Matt. He states quite clearly that those who are sent must love the Lord their God with all their heart, soul, and mind and then love their neighbor as themselves.
From that posture, they must recognize that all authority has been given to him; therefore, they should go and make disciples of all nations. As a modern-day phenomenon, the short-term missions movement has spanned the globe and has provided opportunities for thousands of individuals to experience, for a brief time, the world of missions.
The length of service often varies from a week to several years. Mission agencies, churches, high schools, colleges and universities, parachurch ministries, families, and individuals are increasingly exploring and promoting short-term missions. The wide variety of people taking advantage of these opportunities include youth, college and university students, single adults, families, and seniors. The kinds of work that individuals and teams engage in include, but are not limited to, construction projects, teaching English, athletics and sports, drama and the arts, medical and health care, evangelism and discipleship, church planting, youth ministries, camp work, prayer and research, and general assistance.
The short-term missions movement has grown dramatically over the past several decades. Mission agencies, church denominations, and parachurch organizations as well as independent teams continue to contribute to the large numbers involved in the short-term missions enterprise. During the late s, more than thirty thousand individuals joined forces each year with career missionaries and nationals to serve in urban centers, towns, and countries around the world.
This rapid growth is due in part to modern travel that allows individuals to journey to the remotest areas of the world in a relatively short time. There continues to be a desire on the part of those who go to make themselves available in service without committing their entire lives to a missions career. There has been an overwhelming acknowledgment of short-term missions in recent years, and, though there is much discussion about the practice, it is obvious that short-term missions is a powerful and effective force in the modern missions movement. The Critics.
Many have been critical of short-term missions for numerous reasons. One of the main criticisms focuses on the motivation of those who go. Many career missionaries feel that short-term missionaries lack real commitment and endurance. Often the national church questions the presence of the short-term worker in their culture because it appears that the motivation of the short-termer is unclear. Some feel that the short-term workers provide a distraction for career missionaries.
Other concerns focus on the perception that the results from short-term ministry are unreliable and there is little lasting fruit produced from the work of the short-term workers. Many suggest that the financial costs are too high and possibly take money away from career missionaries. The Value. Despite the many criticisms, short-term missions is moving forward. The short-term missions movement definitely has been a key factor in the mobilization of world mission globally.
The present generation of missionary candidates tends to make their decisions and commitments based on the knowledge gained through firsthand experience. As a result of short-term service a world vision can be developed that in turn affects the mobilization efforts of the church at large. In addition, many feel that short-term missions provides valuable respite for career missionaries, brings a fresh enthusiasm from the outside, and accomplishes practical projects as well as significant ministry. Obviously, many who serve in short-term missions are likely candidates for long-term service, and in fact, a significant number of career missionaries today have had a short-term mission experience.
Those who return without making a commitment to long-term service are able to impact the churches that they are a part of with a global awareness and an expanded vision of God's work in the world. As a result, the prayer efforts and the giving patterns for missions are enhanced. The short-term missions experience is valid, but there are some important components that must be put into place to ensure its effectiveness. A careful selection process should be established so that those who are sent know the purpose for which they are being sent and are willing to go as learners and servants.
Clear communication channels should be established with churches, nationals, and missionaries on the field in order to clarify expectations. Thorough preparation for those on the field, as well as the short-term workers, is essential. A clear understanding developed through training in the areas of spiritual formation, cultural issues, and interpersonal dynamics is necessary.
Short-term workers should also understand the biblical basis of their service. Realistic expectations for the short-term worker must be explored. Those expectations should assume a posture of learning and a desire to serve with the national leaders and career missionaries in a supportive partnership. One of the most important dimensions of any short-term mission is careful reflection at the end of the experience.
Short-term workers must debrief and process their experience so that they can be responsible with what they have been allowed to experience.
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